~ Mills & Work Places ~
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Corn Mills
From a document dated 1865 we learn that there were two small corn mills on the river Worth.


Kings Mill
Keighley's oldest mill and situated up the North Beck. Annual rent £2.2s.half d. paid to Thomas Guiseley of Rawdon.
Late beknown as Holmes Mill after the miller Robert Holmes who absconded in 1760 leaving debts, a years rent unpaid and the grind stone broken. While looking through the Parish register we spotted entries for the baptisms of three children in the years 1752, 56 and 58, to  John and Hannah Holmes, occupation miller. 

Keighley

Richard Williamson 1816, New Bridge Street. Richard Williamson and Robert Evers partnership was dissolved in 1801. Jackson's Oxford Journal December 1800 reported a fire at the corn mill of  Williamson and Evers. Messrs. Williamson and Evers' corn mills, at Keighley, were burnt down November 17th 1860. 
Joseph Skaife continued to be a miller after 1851, but had retired by 1881.
For W. & J. Bairstow see Mantra Mill
John Blakey, Low bridge 1829. 
Partnership of  Wilkinson and  Townend dissolved 1828 New Bridge Street. William Townend, Keighley Mills 1829 bankrupt. 
William Wilkinson 1823, 36 Church Street, 1829 Upper Green
Guy Pearson Hanover Street.

Ingrow. 
Keighley's second corn mill. Park and Skaife Corn Millers and Maltsters. 1850 George Park and Joseph Skaife. George and Joseph were  related.
1852 Barstows corn mill destroyed by fire.

Stockbridge
:  Robert Crabtree 1713 & 1734. James Smith, the grandfather of Prince was miller here in the late 1700's. James Pearson 1777. John Pearson 1802. Joseph Smith 1829 and up to around 1837, his brother was William Smith of Hill Top. John Wright was the miller in 1841 and till at least 1861.

Haworth: Guy Pearson 1751. Up to 1820 Pighills and Pilling, made up of John Pighills, Joseph and William Pilling. James Ackroyd 1829. Craven & Murgatroyd 1829. 1853 John and Richard Murgatroyd. Thomas  Pearson. 

Oxenhope
: James Jowett 1733.

Laycock


Oakworth
: John Emott leased the mill, bill of sale says water corn mill and kiln. Guy Pearson1796. John Pearson 1834

Ponden
: Built by Heatons. John Pearson.


Millers listed in the parish register, but sadly not the mill they were connected to, William Woodhead, James Robinson.

 


There is more on some of the families that were corn millers on the family page.


The Old Corn Mill Stockbridge.

The Old Corn Mill Stockbridge
The painting is by by John Bradley Photograph is copyrighted by Bradford Museums

The Old Corn Mill Keighley

The Old Corn Mill Keighley
The painting is by by John Bradley Photograph is copyrighted by Bradford Museums


To Thomas Blakey and Joseph Skaife, of Keighley, in the county of York, millers, for improvements in mills for grinding.—[Sealed 6th July, 1852.] This invention relates to an improved method of dressing millstones. 
The working grooves or lines on the face of millstones are usually arranged in sets of straight lines, placed at particular angles. It has been found, by experience, that this arrangement is open to objection, in as much as the meal is not delivered quick enough, and air cannot easily reach the grinding surfaces: consequently, the meal gets heated, and is thereby injured. 
To obviate these difficulties, curved lines have been substituted for straight lines, but without success, as the stones did not deliver freely, and the air was prevented by the meal from entering the working lines or grooves. The present invention consists simply in substituting compound curved lines in place of either straight lines or simple curves: that is to say, the lines are curved in two directions, as shewn at fig. 1, Plate VI. The first curve starts from the eye of the stone, and is taken at a given angle, according to the speed at which the stone is intended to be driven. By thus setting the curve at an angle, the corn, when it first enters, is quickly broken down, and is caused to travel quickly over that portion of the stone nearest the centre or eye, until it arrives at the best and most effective part of the grinding surface, where the operation of grinding is performed with much greater ease, and in a more effectual manner, than heretofore; the line or groove is then made to bend or curve round in the opposite direction, and thereby a quick delivery of the ground corn or meal, and an in-draft of air through the eye to the grinding surfaces, are simultaneously effected. It will be understood, that the inner curves draw in the corn and convey it quickly to the most effective part of the grinding surface, where it becomes ground before it has time to heat, and that the remaining curves quickly deliver the ground corn or meal from between the grinding surfaces; and by thus keeping the working lines or grooves free from meal, the introduction of a current of air is facilitated. To quicken the delivery of the meal from the stones, it is proposed, in some cases, to have additional short curved lines made near the periphery of the stone, as shown at fig. 2, set midway between the others, and extending inwards as far as the commencement of the outer curves. The patentees claim the employment of grinding surfaces with compound curved lines or grooves formed thereon, as above shewn and described.—[Inrolled January, 1853.]

Paper Mills

Laycock: Joseph Town & Sons, Paper Manufacturers. Turkey Mills, Keighley. The firm of Joseph Town and Sons, Ltd., was established in 1822 by Mr. John Town, of Keighley, who built the Turkey Mills for his two Sons, Joseph and John, and his son-in-law John Smith.
Morton. See the families page for more on the Town family, and the entry on this page for Turkey Mill.

Note: Mill Lane changed it's name to  Bridge Street (bottom of Halifax Road).

Please use the below as reference only, we can not be held responsible for any incorrect entries, but would be delighted if any readers could enlighten us further or make corrections.
Names linked to the mills could be owner, sponsor, or user. Some mills had more than one occupant at the same time, being divided and space rented off. Mills changed hands often, through sales, marriages and deaths. It is interesting how many of the textile families connected through marriage. There was much shifting of ownership with the change from woolen weaving to cotton spinning, then back to worsted manufacture. Many made the transition with out much trouble, others fell by the wayside.

Timmy Feather, the last handloom weaver in the area, lived until his death aged 85 in 1910 in Stanbury. 
He, like many, would  take his cloth for sale at the Piece Hall, Halifax or to Colne.  When Timmy first started taking his cloth over the moors carrying it over his shoulder, he would have traveled with other
weavers from the area, some would have been children carrying the pieces on their shoulder for the cost of a carrier would take all of the small profit that they would make, as the years went by there 
would have been less and less people talking the journey as they
started work in the mills, in the end he was making this journey alone but as he had done it all his life and the dropping off of the others would have been gradual he would not have thought anything off it. We can only amaze at the strength he had to be able to walk all that way with such a heavy load. There is a story how two young girls coming back over the moors lost their way in a snow blizzard and died.

Handloom Weavers  
While going through the 1871 census I found an unusual entry, at 33 Bradford Road, Keighley John Slater aged 73 born in Thornton is listed has a handloom weaver, this was not unusual in the villages but most weavers living in the town were employed by the mills. Although we are aware that some commission weavers did provide handloom weavers with work.
A letter from a handloom weaver in Manchester to his fellow workers on the eve of the industrial revolution
National Archives
This image from learnhistory.org.uk shows the poster for reward used at the time of the industrial revolution. 


Piece Halls (Cloth Halls)
Taken from  bradfordhistorical.org.uk

So marked was this increase that in 1773 two merchants and seven stuff makers, acting on behalf of their fellows, promoted the building of the first Piece Hall in Bradford, followed in a very few years by a second, associated hall. In these halls, the first containing 100 stands on the lower floor for subscribers as well as space on the upper floor for non-subscribers, and the second containing a further 158 stands, manufacturers could expose their goods for sale. Previously they had either used rooms in their own houses, or, if they lived outside Bradford, had rented stands in a room at the White Lion Inn.   Alternatively they could have attended Wakefield where the Tammy Hall was opened in 1766. A Piece Hall was erected at Colne in 1775 and at Halifax in 1779. The woolstaplers who organised much of the worsted trade were unable, individually, to suppress the various frauds and embezzlements practiced against them, and consequently a Worsted Committee was established in 1777 to control such activities. Four Bradford men were on the first committee and its first chairman, John Hustler, was a Bradford man who had been prominent in the fight to establish it.

Addingham Piece Hall 
Bradford Wool Exchange Bradford woollen history   brianlambert.btinternet.co.uk  
Colne Piece Hall
   Cloth Hall, Colne image
Halifax Piece Hall
   
Heptonstall A cloth hall was built  in 1545-1548 by the Waterhouse family of Shibden Hall and called Blackwell Hall after the London market of that name. 

Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth-Century England victorianweb.org

There is a rough drawn map at the foot of the page CLICK HERE showing some of the mills. More detailed maps showing the location of some of the mills can be found HERE


MILLS
For photographs of the mills in Oxenhope and Stanbury we can highly recommend the book by Steven Wood and Ian Palmer

Acres Mill, Berry Lane (King Street). 
On the morning of Sunday 9th January 2011 we hear that Acre mill is being pulled down, fortunately before it is level with the ground some photos were taken.

The above photo's are taken from  keighleyweb
Thanks to Allan Smith for the photo
Built by Berry Smith 1809. Started life as a machine shop, Berry Smith converted it.
Berry Smith. Started life as a poor lad with no means and served an apprenticeship with William Carr to learn the trade of mechanic around 1790, he then went to work as a mechanic at West Greengate Mill, which at the time was producing cotton run by John, Joseph and Thomas Blakey and William Marriner. He stayed with them about three years before starting business on his own. (taken from Hodgson's book) 
Berry resided in a cottage which stands in the Hope Mill Yard, just opposite the gate which lead to the dwelling house attached to the mill. He had his workshop in his own chamber, where he set up his benches and lathes. Under his house was a cellar  cottage occupied by a man of the name Sunderland, who had a son named John that worked at West Greengate Mill while Berry was a mechanic there. When Berry started business on his own this young man John Sunderland went as his apprentice. Berry was repairing the machinery for the cotton trade getting most of his parts from Hattersley. Berry had no steam or power to turn his lathe, so employ someone to do it. Hodgson tells us that Berry employed a man called "Old Laddie" Common practice was to have what they called Shop Laws, so should one employee throw an object or swear to another employee they would be penalised twopence, Laddie was the exception as he would have had no wages to take home. He was so much in the habit of swearing he did not realise when he was doing it. If he was charged with swearing he would then swear at his accusers that he had not done it. 
After around five years Berry built Acers.
Berry bought in 1804 from Thomas Corlass a plot of land for £83, 1805 he bought some more land from John Wilkinson for £60, and it was on this land he built his workshop. 1809 he bought some more land from John and David Spencer (Woolstaplers) and built Acers Mill and a house. Some time around 1810 Berry filled his mill with worsted spinning machines and started spinning on a commissions basis. 
Acre Mill was steam powered with about about twenty-horse power. Employing Sixty persons. Work begins at six o'clock in the morning, ends at seven o'clock at night, about eight months in summer; and begins at seven o'clock in the morning, ends at eight o'clock at night, four months in winter. There is no time allowed for sickness that is paid for, but their place is left open for them till they get better; if they are maimed by accident by the machinery, their time is then paid them as if they were at work, and the doctor's bill also.
Titus Longbottom was employed by Berry around 1807 as a joiner in the production of making worsted spinning frames. Titus was only with Berry for about two years before he left and started business on his own, yet they had developed a great friendship which lasted all their lives, even though they were many times to be in direct competition in business. Titus built in 1815 a house and machine shop in South Street but sadly were burnt down in 1863. Sugden of Fleece Mills had obtained most of his machinery from him, as did Craven and Brigg of Walk Mill and Browend. The daughter of Titus Longbottom, Grace, 1844 married Samuel Dixon, corner miller of Damside.
Michael Sugden was weaving on power looms here,  he married the daughter of Richard Shackelton of Green Top and started off trading from here employing handloom weavers. 1838 he moved down to Keighley occupying part of the warehouse at Croft House, then moving to Acres. 
1816 Hartley Merrall, Commission Spinner. haworth-village.org.uk
Around 1822 Thomas Smith moved from Walk Mill and took room on the basement floor of Low Bridge Mill which had recently been rebuilt after the fire. The mill had now gone from Cotton to worsted spinning by Hartley Merrall, Joseph Rhodes and Miss Butterfield, but they were not in partnership. 1827 Thomas Smith moved to the other side of the road to Low Bridge to a building that would be later occupied by Edward Chatburn who used it as a pipe makers shop. In this new place Thomas Smith had steam power which he obtained from Low Bridge Mill carried by a shaft across the road. In all places Thomas Smith had produced spinning frames, rollers, spindles, flyers and guides. In 1834 he moved yet again to Acers Mill

Timothy Hird & Sons Ltd. (George, Isaac, and Abraham) took the lease on the building in 1834 and later bought it. For more in-depth information of the Hird family and their involvement, please see our separate page with information from Richard Hird.

1840 Acers mill suffered a fire, the occupants Fox and Bland (in White's Directory of 1837 we find them listed Fox and Bland, (iron, Club houses) who were making power looms, and Smiths place adjoined their work shop and the effects of the fire impacted hard where almost everything in his joiners shop was destroyed. Despite the lack of insurance which was the norm, he struggled on till the end which was 1850, when his sons Charles and Allan took over. 

In 1856 we find an advertisement for the house, cottages, mill and other buildings. The mill is in the occupation Of Timothy Hird and Sons (paying £240 per year rent). Mechanics shop with weaving shed over, and adjoining the mill, in the occupation of George Bland, and the weaving shed Smith and Holmes. Two dwelling houses with gardens in the occupation of Timothy and Abraham Hird. Another dwelling house in the occupation of Isaac Hird. A close of land known as the Croft, occupied by William Gordon. 
A close of land called The Great Acres, occupied by Joseph and Robert Lister. 
1875 the  Hirds were in trouble for emitting black smoke from the mill Chimney.
Timothy Hird & Sons worsted manufacture in operation in 1925.

Airedale Works
1870 Darling and Sellers


Aireworth Mills
, (nicked named Screw mill) Water-powered cotton mill, established in 1787, rebuilt 1808 and Financed by Samuel Blakey and converted to worsted spinning in 1813.  
1787-1789 John Greenwood and Sons. John Greenwood was one of many that took rooms here. John later moved to Cabbage Croft. 
H Clapham & Son took it later. Henry Clapham, Grandson of Samuel Blakey, and son of Samuel Blakey Clapham of Aireworth House and Mill in Keighley. 
It was listed in the 1841 rate book as Screw Mill.
When the mill was in the ownership of Calvert and Clapham the night watchman would go around the mill at hourly intervals and retire to his house which stood in the mill yard, but was some way from the warehouse. One night on such an occasion after the night watchman had done his round and returned to his house, thief's broke into the warehouse by picking the locks and filled four bags with tops, they fastened all four bags and carried two to an adjoining field ready to take away. However their plan was flawed as the watchman had a dog which he had trained to go round the mill every half hour, so when the dog went out and saw the men running it raised the alarm. The watchman came out of the house and seeing the situation called up on the help of other workers who lived in the yard. The robbers got away, but with out their bootie. The following morning they found four pair of shoes which the robbers had not had time to put on.
1868 Thomas B Laycock, wool comber, spinner and weaver employing 200 people. 
1873 William Smith and Son's selling 3 fly spinning frames. 
1893 Ethel Wood aged 11 had her right wrist badly lacerated at the screw Mill
Monday, November 21, 1898 The North-Eastern Daily Gazette reports on a fire, it reports that part of the mill was occupied by Messer Edmond Laycock and Co, commission worsted spinners, the other part being occupied by James and Richard Lister. George Higgs one of the firemen came close to losing his life when he fell into and on to the burning weft. Around 400 people were thrown out of work due to the fire.

Alexandra Mill, East Parade
Built as a spinning mill. The mill caught fire in 1865 when Henry Smith and Co were here, they were commission spinners and gave up business after the fire.  Hodgson tells us (page 171) that Collingham moved here after the partnership between him and Ambler was dissolved, and that Collingham was here at the time of the fire. 1870 Smith H. and J
The Leeds Mercury Friday, April 5, 1872 reported that two boys deliberately broke one of the machines in order to get a day off work, one was found not guilty but Charles Edmondson age 15 was imprisoned for one week for his actions. July 1872 the mill was destroyed by fire, the damage was estimated to be £20,000. 1925 J & E Pilgrim worsted spinner was here.
Demolished 2013.

Anchor Works, Wellington Street
Murton & Varley, wringing and mangling machines. Manufactured and imported sewing machines from 1880 up until around 1918. Originally the company was Varley & Wolfenden

Atlas Steel Works, Parkwood
Spencer, J . & Co. machine tool makers


Bank
Place  William Smith and son, Stuff Manufacturer 1829. William Lund, Worsted Spinners & Stuff Manufacturers 1834

Bar House Works, Riddelsden
E Smithson & Co Wool Merchants 1950

Beckstones Mill

Becks Mill, Becks Road
Yorkshire's first woollen mill.
Messer's Charles Fox and George Bland started manufacturing power looms about 1835, they first started up in a low room in what was Williamson's Mill (Beck's Mill) and were here for two or three years, the business grew rapidly and they needed bigger premises. About 1838 they moved to a two story building behind Acers and erected a foundry. At some point it might have come under the ownership of the Earl of Burlington, for we are sure he owned it at the time William Lund was here.

1849 an advertisement for the sale of the mill, dam, wash house, engine and boiler house, in the present possession of John Williamson, also a newly erected cottage occupied by  Jonathan Murgatroyd. The premises are held under lease from
the Earl of Burlington. 
1851 partnership dissolved between Henry Waddington, Thomas Bland and T Illingworth (lately deceased) worsted spinners of Becks Mill.
1859 Thomas Bland, late of Becks Mill, Keighley, Yorkshire, Overlooker, previously of the same place, Worsted Spinner, and formerly of the same place, carrying on business in co partnership with Thomas Illingworth and Henry Waddington, as Worsted Spinners, under the style or firm of Illingwortb, Waddington, and Co.
1858 the partnership between J Mitchell, T Holmes and J Taylor dissolved. 
1863 Lund was told to box in the shaft after Martha Hannah Hall age 9 died after getting her shawl caught and being dragged round which resulted in her death.
1875 we found an advertisement for J.H Gill and Co Engineers  selling 3 horse power vertical high pressure engine. 
Thomas Sargison and William Sargison trading as R Sargison and Sons spindle and fly makers dissolved the partnership in 1882.
1881 John Henry Roper, wool comber and carder. 

Beech Mill, South Street
Built about 1862 by Mr. Ambler Senior, just after this the partnership of Ambler and Collingham was dissolved, Collingham going to Alexandra Mills, later Collingham built Spring Field Mill at Holy Croft. The mill as been enlarged numerous times. 1870 Ambler W. B. and Co. 1925 Irving Firth. 

Braithwaite Brow
Joseph Hartley, farmer and in 1805 he was manufacturing stuff pieces, his warehouse was connected to his house.

Bogthorn, (Slack, nr Bogthorn) John Judson, Worsted Manufacturer 1822. 1869 we found an advertisement, John Judson, Architect, Bogthorn

Bracken Bank, John Sugden, Stuff Manufacturer 1829

Brandy mill
 
In 1832  William Robinson took on the mill which was somewhere in the Greengate area as Hodgson tells us the mill was near Greengate House. We wonder if this mill was also known as Dawson's mill due to finding a William Robinson at that place in 1834. William Robinson Worsted Spinners 1834. In 1842 he moved to Strong Close Mill

Bridgehouse Mill, Haworth.
John and James Greenwood 1770-1847. Redman and Halt, Worsted Spinners and manufacturers had room here in 1868.

Britannia Mill, Goulbourne Street.
Bobbin Mill 1925 Shelah Haggas Spindle and fly maker.

Browend Mill
, Fallow Lane, Goose Eye. 
1791 originally water powered cotton spinning mill with 20 frames built on the estate of Thomas Brigg by the partnership of John Craven, Thomas Brigg and Abraham Shackleton. 1822 the partnership was dissolved and Mr. Craven took on Walk mill himself. Thomas and John Brigg continued at Brow End. Brow End Mill was converted to grind up rags to be used in paper manufacture, the mill then became known as Rag Mill.

Brunswick Foundry
1881 James Smith Naylor

Burlington Shed see Prince-Smith & Stells

Calversyke Hill, Thomas Ramsden, Worsted Manufacturer 1822. William Binns, Stuff Manufacturers 1829. Matthew Butterfield,  Stuff Manufacturer 1829. John Hanson, Stuff Manufacturer 1829. John Robinson, Stuff Manufacturers 1829. 

Calversyke Mill.
1835 built. In 1842 Thomas Brigg Laycock became a partner in the firm, which then took the name of John Brigg & Co. Some time around 1845 they began weave figured goods on Jacquard looms, a weaving shed was added around 1853 and a new spinning shed built in 1876. From the census of 1861 we see he is employing 560 people. 1868 John Brigg & Company, combers, spinners and weavers employing 500 people here and at Browend.  Briggs Sold to Joseph King 1893

Cabbage Mill.
Cabbage Croft, Long Croft
1789-1844 John Greenwood and Sons


1

2
Photo 1 Sketch of Cabbage Mill

Photos 2 and 3 very kindly provided by Allan Smith.
2 shows the mill as the area is being demolished.
3 the top of Longcroft, Cabbage on the right and you can just see the Yellow signs of Morrison's and the left

In 1793 John Greenwood built himself a fine new mill on the Cabbage Croft at the junction of the Worth and North Beck and employed his son as manager so freeing up his time to follow other projects. (Taken from Revival to Regency A History of Keighley & Haworth 1740 - 1820). He also built a fine house for his son next to the mill, more information on Cabbage House can be found on the houses page.
Baines's Directory and Gazetteer Directory of 1822 Cotton Spinners and Manufacturers, Greenwood John & Sons.  John Greenwood  & Sons Greenwood also built Vale mill at Oakworth.   
Soon after building Vale Mill Greenwoods bought an estate at Swarcliffe near Ripon and built a five storey high cotton spinning mill. The Raikes wagons would travel once or twice a week between the two mills.
1847 Cabbage mill was still spinning cotton. 
William Mitchell went into partnership with John and William Roper, they kept a large number of hand combers and spun their own yarn. The partnership was not successful and was dissolved around 1854 when the two Ropers left the firm. Mitchell once again became a commission spinner. His landlord was Fredrick Greenwood and offered to sell the mill to Mitchell. Mitchell altered and extended Cabbage Mill, building a large spinning mill, large wool warehouse and a combing shed. He was mainly spinning for Foster and Fison of Burley Mills. Mitchell then started spinning on his own account and combining by machine and selling the yarn mainly at Bradford market.
1882 it is advertised to sell or let in one or more lots. The Leeds Mercury, Thursday, May 11, 1882
May 1885 we find it once more offered for sale, owned my William Mitchell and partly occupied by William Shackelton, the description given: Cabbage mill consisting chimney, engine and boiler house, mechanics shops and stable, the site covering 1060 square yards. It was withdrawn at £4,000.
Early 1900's Hattersley's took over the mill to produce tapes and webbings. 
The Keighley News reported Keighley engineers' strike, which lasted for more than three months in the summer of 1914 and was only ended by the outbreak of the Great War. Windows at North Brook Works and Cabbage Mills were among those of several firms to be broken by strikers.
We found an entry in an old telephone directory of 1981. Premier Bailing & Winding Co Ltd. Commission Bailers, winders. Cabbage mills, Sun Street, North Way, Keighley.
Oct 1998 the Keighley news reported that William Morrison supermarket chain had demolished the old Cabbage Mills building to build their petrol station. 
I think we would be safe in coming to the assumption that the place names were an indication of what was there before building, Long Croft (long field) and Cabbage Croft (cabbage field).

To the side of Cabbage mill was an area with cottages, called Cabbage Croft, and sometimes Greenwood place. What we can be sure of is that dwellings were at Cabbage Croft before the mill was built.

On a couple of maps and a plan we found in the library, Cabbage Mill is shown not up by the house where it is shown on other maps, but lower down, near to the junction of Alkincote Street, Becks Street and Greengate. 

Charles Mill, Oxenhope
Because of other websites covering Haworth and Oxenhope I have done little on the mills in those areas. I feel that the work done on this mill by Jarlath Bancroft is most certainly worth including. It will  be of great interest to local historians and family researchers alike.
Click here to read.


Castle mill,
Becks Road.
Built by Joseph Smith who was known as the "old Merchant" for cotton spinning in the late 1700's, we believe about 1783 on land belonging to the Cavendish's.   
Joseph Smith  was the great grandfather of Jeremiah Carrodus of Gladstone Street. Joseph Smith was the father of Ann Illingworth who built Grove Mill. When Joseph Smith gave up spinning the business was continued by David and William Illingworth. David and William formed a partnership with William Marriner. William Marriner left the partnership in 1797 and became a partner at West Greengate Mill. 
Sold to Joseph Driver in the late 1700's or early 1800's. He had previously rented part of the mill. 
From the Factories Inquiry Commission 1834 power is provided by water from the North Beck giving Twelve horse power, and part let off to John Lund and Sugden, worsted spinning who commenced in 1824. The other occupier is J. Sugden and Co who says he's been in business since 1824. Employing twenty-two persons. The names at the end of the statement are Jonathan Sugden, James Judson, Robert Sugden, Mary Judson.
1831 the partnership between Mary Judson, James Judson, Jonathan Sugden, Robert Sugden, Mary Ann Wilkinson, Hannah Wilkinson and John Sunderland was dissolved. 
In the 1800's. Other users of the mill William  Wilkinson  & Son cotton spinners. William  Wilkinson was grandfather of Mrs Rishworth who was lessee of Castle Mill, and he was the son of John Wilkinson who had done much to introduce Methodism to Keighley.
William  Wilkinson  did not succeed in business and in 1815 found himself in great difficulties, his son John could not bear to see his father go bankrupt and took on the business and it's debts. John was in business as a timber merchant and ironmonger, but soon after gave up the timber trade. Unfortunately after struggling for a number of years he was ruined in the Butterworth panic of 1826 and the problem so prayed on his mind he died very soon after. There is an overlap of dates so we wonder if the mill like so many was used by more than one occupant. 1822 William Wilkinson and son, Worsted Spinners and Manufacturers 1822.
James Judson  & Co. Worsted Spinners. John Judson lived on a farm at Slack, Bogthorn, he died 1830  from injuries received after being  thrown from his horse on his way back from Bradford market,  his widow continued putting in a manager by the name of Wignall, 1833 Wignall died, but Judson's son, also called John, was now of age and so look over, he lost money and retired from manufacturing and returned to farming Slack Farm. James Judson and Co, Worsted Spinner 1834. James Judson the younger had for almost twenty years operated Holme House Mill.
Taken from The Schoolmaster, and Edinburgh Weekly Magazine 1832. Abraham Weldam-Worked at Judson and Brother's mills at Keighley. Considers the lives of factory children one of extraordinary oppression and slavery. In the mill referred to they were chastised and beaten very cruelly at times; the overlooker was a person of very immoral character, a very bad man ; he chastised them with any weapon that came at hand. The overlookers are too often in the habit of availing themselves of their conuoul over the female children for very improper purposes.
Robert Sugden lived at a farm at Spring Head and was manufacturing stuff pieces from this place and was spinning at Castle  Mill where he was a partner of a commission spinners firm that consisted of himself, his brother Jonathan and James Judson. Robert gave up when power looms became the vogue. Robert was the father of Robert Sugden who built East Parade, Jonathan had been for a time master at the Endowed School at Hare Hill
Abraham Sugden  & Co. Abraham Sugden lived on a small farm near Grove mill and around 1818 entered into a partnership with John Lund who had a grocers shop in Damside. Mr. Lund retired around 1838, so Sugden took his brother and son in law as partners and traded as Abraham Sugden  & Co. Abraham Sugden died in 1840. An entry in a death notice for Sarah Sugden, wife of Abraham of Castle Mill 1839.The partnership of A and R Sugden and J Hodgson worsted spinners was dissolved. 
1874 the mill along with the house is advertised for sale, Leasehold stone built worsted mill known as Castle Mill together with the 20 horse power water wheel abundantly supplied from the never failing source of the most excellent water. 20 horse power horizontal steam engine by Bracewell. 40 horse power boiler nearly new. Shafting and going gear, together with land, three cottages, stable, engine and boiler houses, office and outbuildings. The area comprises around three acres. 
1879
G Lister applies for a Patent on a water wheel. 
1885 E.M. Cocking, J. Lister and R. Lister, partnership dissolved. 

Cavendish Mill
Lund James jun

Coney Lane Mill.

Joseph Keighley who had been manufacturing stuff pieces at Lower Wood Head, Morton Banks. Around 1820 he built a mill and a dwelling house in Coney Lane, he turned  to farming  and his son's continued with the business, the mill was then occupied by Sugden Keighley & Co., Hodgson tells us  this firm have replaced the house in Coney Lane by handsome offices and shops; they have also rebuilt the mill, the architecture of which is very elegant in design, occupying the site of the old mill, but considerably larger. 
The Solicitors' journal & reporter 1857 (Bankrupt) 
KEIGHLEY, William, Sugden Keighley, A Joseph Keighley, Worsted Manufacturers, Keighley, Yorkshire. June 30, and July 28, at 11; Leeds. Com. Ayrton. Off. Ass. Hope. Sols. Bond A Barwick, Leeds. Pet. June 12.

Walker Smith Anderson was occupying the premises in 1858 but the machinery with in was owned by William Cheesbrough and Samuel Laycock Tee
1870 Summerscales & Sons Washing and wringing machine manufacturers

Cook Lane Mill
Advertised for rent in 1869 and 1873, 2 storeys and attic. 1870 the ground floor was advertised to rent. 1873 advertised to rent, 2 storeys, attic and warehouse. 

Croft House, Binns and Williamson, Worsted Spinners and Manufacturers 1822. Williamson & Rishworth,  Worsted Spinners and Stuff Manufacturers 1829 also at Holme Mill

N. Constantine, somewhere on the North beck. 
Preparing and spinning of sheep's wool into worsted yarn, after it has passed the operation of combing. The power originally was intended for water alone, but finding the stream too weak in dry seasons, a small engine was added in the year 1832, solely for the purpose of assisting the water power in dry seasons. The rivulet which supplied the mill is known by the name of the North Beck. The power of the wheel and small engine together may be computed at about eighteen horse power, wholly employed by the owners of the premises. Employing forty-six persons.

Cross Roads Mill
1868 William Haggas & Sons, worsted manufacturers employing 160 people. 

Dean, Smith, and Grace, Ltd Worth Valley Tool Works, Pitt St


Dalton Mill
Dolton Lane. Also called Cowling Mill, Tower Mill and Strong Close Mill Dalton mill fire
Taken from the Keighley News Saturday 1st January 2011 Blaze at historic Keighley mill

Firefighters from across West Yorkshire are currently tackling a blaze at Dalton Mills in Keighley. Twenty appliances – including five specialist units – are at the scene, in Dalton Lane. An estimated 30 per cent of the building, over two floors, is affected. Crews were called out to the historic Grade II listed mills shortly before 7pm. Five large water jets have been used to bring the inferno under control. Fire investigators are in attendance. 
9:46am Sunday 2nd January 2011 update: Up to 100 fire fighters from across West Yorkshire spent more than four hours battling a fire in Dalton Mills, Keighley, last night. The blaze gutted one four-storey wing of the 19th century Dalton Lane property. Fire service personnel remained at the scene this morning, investigating the cause of the fire. He said the fire was not extinguished until about midnight, though fire crews remained on the scene well into the following morning, damping down the wreckage. Crew commander Paul Turner said at the height of the blaze there were 20 fire engines present from across the county.
 
Keighley News photo

The remains: 
Photo taken from Keighleyweb
There is a very good close up of the fire on flicker taken by silverstealth --------- Youtube Video 
 



Craven Mills Trip about 1960


1899 Dalton Mill fire
Built by Rachel Leech sister of Thomas and William who lived at West Riddlesden Hall, in partnership with Atkinson and Mathew Dalton, around 1790 on land belonging to Thomas Leech, the partnership broke up in 1793
The mill was named after the Manager. 
Miss Leach got into dispute with Low Mill over the diversion of the water, the owners of Low Mill tried to deprive Dolton Mill of water by diverting it to a goit. Low Mill lost the battle and the goit was walled up. 
1803 Thomas Leach is here.
The original mill and house was pulled down and a new splendid mill built by David and John Cowling, cousins to Joshua Cowling of Braithwaite, and for a time was known as Cowling Mill. John lived in the house that belonged to the original mill and David lived at Bank House, Morton Banks. One dark winter night David was on his way home, at the top of the dam belonging to Screw Mill was a narrow plank which crossed the deep water and it would seem that David lost his footing and fell into the cold water and died in early 1800's. Even after his death, and the plank being the only means to cross the water, the plank remained for twenty or thirty years more. It was soon after the death of his brother that John gave the mill up, and it was sold to  Clayton of Low Mill. 
1823 Stephen Parkinson was the bookkeeper here and living in the mill house. 
William Clayton and Sons were here in 1837 and also at Low Mill.  1841 Thomas Holmes overlooker was living in the mill house.
William Robinson, Worsted Spinners and Manufacturers of Strong Close, Keighley (White's Directory 1853)
1866, Samuel Briggs, also of St. Georges Hall Bradford, washing machine and bedstead maker.
Because of the fine tower with clock it was often called Tower Mill
1868 J. & J. Craven & Company, Woollen Spinners and Manufacturers (also at Walk Mills)
1899 the mill being owned by J. H. Craven and part occupied by Ira Ikeringill, worsted spinners. One evening in 1899 at 10.15 the mill was observed to be on fire. The fire brigade turned out with two engines under the supervision of Captain Longsdale. 
1925 W Midgley and Sons Worsted spinners, also Arthur J Smith  & Co Worsted Spinners and J.W Dunderdale worsted spinner.

Dam Side  Betty Hudson built a small cotton mill which was replaced in 1802 by a larger mill, A plaque on the mill gave the date  1789,  but later changed over to worsted. Betty's daughter married Thomas Parker and his son  managed the mill for her until 1806. Parker had a cotton mill at Arncliffe, where he lived. When Betty went to live with her daughter John Greenwood took over the running of the mill along with William and Lister Ellis. The mill later became known as the the Barracks, it was turned into cottages to house mill workers who were mostly hand combers in the employment of Greenwood who now owned the building. Greenwood and Ellis 1807-1813 John Greenwood and Sons 1813-abt 1820. In 1820 William Sugden offers the mill to let. 1822 John and William Lund, Worsted Manufacturers. John Williamson, Worsted Spinners 1834.
       

Damems mill
  
We have collated enough information on Dam Elms mill that we have created it's own page HERE

Dawsons Mill, William Robinson, Worsted Spinners & Stuff Manufacturers 1834. Dawson's mill could also have been known as Brandy Mill

Deanfield, James Hey, Worsted Manufacturer 1822. 1769- 1826

Denby Mill
     


Devonshire Mill built in 1909-10 electrically powered worsted weaving mill,  designed by John Haggas and Sons. 
J H Binns and Co, worsted coating manufacturers were listed here in 1925. 

Duncan Street, Henry Hanson, Worsted Spinners and Manufacturers 1822.

East Parade
Nixon and Son Washing machine makers 1925.

Eastwood Mill

Owned by Ickringill of Balcony House, Oakworth Rd.  He had his own brass band. 
1889 Alfred Lummis, a yarn scourer, who died from injuries received at Eastwood Mills
1898 Empsall & Firth Dress goods manufacture. Also Ickringill & Co Ltd worsted spinners.
1925 John Mitchell Worsted spinners and Robert C Franklin Co Ltd worsted spinners.

When the mill caught fire Thursday afternoon 23rd February 1956, it was owned by Robert C Franklin. Eight workers died in the fire, their escape thwarted by a locked door at the bottom of the fire escape. Ten brigades and fifteen appliances attended.
The Victims: 
Florrie Cox age abt 40, a spinner of 25 Fig Street.
Kathleen Minnock 16, a spinner of 22 Daisy Street.
Theresa Booker 49, spinner, of 17  Marlborough Street.
Connie Dugdale 40 spinner, of 5 Rose Street.
Nora Inman 43 twister, of 8 Primrose Grove Thwaites.
Mary Hazel 48 twister, of 22 Sussex Street.
Patrick Flynn 45 mill labourer, of 34 Chatsworth Street.
Henry Turnbull 17, jobber lad, of 34 Chatsworth Street.
It was this disaster that resulted in the Factories Act being further amended in 1959 giving the fire brigades the power to inspect factories for fire safety, finally in 1961 the Act was re-written to consolidate all the changes. The fire certificates were also updated to include not only means of escape but also provision for fighting fire and structural fire separation.
4th June 1889 An inquest was held at The Queen's Hotel, Keighley on the death of Alfred Lummis a yarn scourer, who died from injuries received at Eastwood Mills
Arthur Hird, a British Rail driver who happened to be making a delivery, was awarded a ‘Daily Herald’ Order of Industrial Heroism for helping to rescue three women.

Eastwood Square, John Mitchell, Worsted Spinners and Manufacturers 1822.

Ebor Mill, Haworth.

Hiram Craven sold to Edwin Merrall. Photo haworth-village.org.uk
The mill was first built about 1819 by Hiram Craven of Dockroyd, a small spinning mill powered by water. Three storeys high with a basement and seven bays. 
keighley.plus.com
The evening of Saturday 14th August 2010 some time after 8pm the mill was on fire. The remaining shell was demolished the day after, Airedale Springs occupied part of the mill.
Ebor Mill Ebor Mill Ebor Mill
The above photos very kindly provided by Jayne Pickard of Haworth


Eagle Works
Watson and Whalley , washing machine and chair makers. 1889 Jas Henry SMITH aged 16, who was killed in the workshop of Watson and Whalley by the "flying" of a grindstone.

Emu
One stood at the corner of Coney Lane and East parade. The demolition captured on film by by John Mitchell of the Cricketers Arms.

Fell Lane mill   
John Rushworth, Worsted Manufacturer 1822. Joshua Robinson, (this might have been Holme Mill)

Flappet Springs.
1868 James Brookbank, Tanner


Fleece MillsSugden Place


The photo to the left shows the entrance from Cavendish Street. Photos provided by Allen Smith
Keighley's biggest mill built 1820 by William Sugden, boasting gas lighting and it's own fire engine.
In 1820 William Sugden's water wheel had 42 horse power.
1834 Nathaniel Wallbank took room and power here.
1870 Beck, Richardson and Smith - Appleyard Edward - Broughton, Craven and Co
1874 Swire Smith was occupying at least part of the mill, a widow woman in his employ caught her scarf in the machinery and was swung around until dead, leaving three children. 
Mr J W Midgley, spinner, Fleece Mills, Keighley has sent a big parcel of wool weighing 10lbs. to be a knitted by the schoolchildren into comforts for soldiers haworth-village.org.uk  
1884 housed worsted spinners John Heaton, John Edmondson and Timothy S Boocock; Greenwood & Co, who produced “all kinds of knitting worsteds”; commission weaver William Smith, machine wool comb maker John Sunderland and grease manufacturer Joseph Craven. 
 

Engine House & Electricity Generator at Fleece Mills, the generator not only supplied the needs of the mill, but also those of most of the properties on one side of Cavendish Street.

1898 Hattersley & Sons and Timothy Hird & Sons. Also John Sunderland wool comb maker. 
Mr. Foulds was a director of the Keighley Fleece Mills Co Ltd for 44 years, from 1885, and chairman for 39 years until his death in 1929. 
1925 W Midgley & Sons worsted spinners, also Jackson Smith worsted spinners and J W Beaver spinners and Hill & Co manufactures.
Mr. Charles Coulton Wrathall of Langdale, Thornhill Road, Steeton He was for several years in business on his own account at Fleece Mills, Keighley. 
Demolished in 1985. 

Forks House Mill, Stanbury
Was close to Forks House farm, just below Top Withins. It was a small mill consisting of just 3 room. It is believed to have been built by Hiram Craven around 1801. In 1810 it was sold with other property of John Sunderland. Jonas Bradley the Stanbury School teacher thought that this had been built as a stamp mill for the gold diggers. 1847 map shows the mill as a ruin. 


Goose Eye Mill







1797 three gentlemen farmers went into partnership to build a cotton mill, *John Bottomley of Holme House, **Richard Shackleton of Green Top and ***Thomas Shackleton of Truewell Hole, (was later to be called hall, but was never a hall). They spun cotton for a few years. Bottomley was the first to leave saying he would lose all if he stayed. The remaining two continued but came to grief. Shackelton lost three fourths and Truewell was sold to Greenwood of Cabbage Mill, and it remained in the Greenwood family for a number of years. It was returned to the Shackelton's when Shackelton of Oaklands bought Truewell back from the Greenwoods. 
The site would later be occupied by the offices of Joseph Town and Sons.
John Town,  who built the Turkey Mills for his two Sons, Joseph and John, and his son-in-law John Smith
John Rushworth who was known as John Rusher, took over the mill from Shackelton, Bottomley and Shackelton. Previously he had operated from his home in Fell Lane which was pulled down in 1854 and a new farm and barn built 
in it's place. 
1804 John Greenwood and Sons, he possibly just owned and let out to others.
Rushworth had a warehouse where he stored his goods at this place but took on Goose Eye for spinning. Hodgson tells us of a story related to him via Rushworth son, Benjamin, that John held a party at the warehouse at the farm in Fell Lane for neighbors and workers to celebrate declaration of peace with France in 1814, with music and dancing until the late hours. In 1814 he was spinning at Wood Mill, we suspect renting a room as Richard Robin was at Wood Mill at this time. He would carry four or half a dozen pieces on his back to Halifax market. He also designed his own dobbies. He failed after selling a large amount of goods to a merchant called Pullan from Leeds in 1824, the amount being £2000. He lived his later life with a member of his family in Hermit Hole.
* John Bottomley was the grandfather of John Bottomly Lund of Oaklands. **Richard Shackleton was the grandfather of Henry I Butterfield of Cliffe Castle. Thomas Shackleton was the grandfather of Thomas Shackleton wool buyer for William Lund and son's.

Grace & Sutcliffe


Map of Greengate Mills
Greengate Mills


Greengate Mill

Benjamin Marriner  & William Heald Yarn Makers
When Marriner's took over Greengate Mill in 1818, they took advantage of other manufactures downfall and paid £384 for some secondhand spinning machinery, and as was typical of them paid in cash. 1842 Thomas Waterhouse occupied part of the mill. 

Greengate Mill (west)  
Also known as Blakey's mill and Far Greengate. The land it was built on belonged to John Blakley who sold the land to Stell in 1761. The field was called Dam Close. Abraham Smith from Kildwick bought it plus land on the south of the beck from a Mr. Booth of London. It was this land on the south of the beck that Marriner built his house. There was a house connected with the mill before Marriner built his dewlling. 
Mr. Smith built the West Greengate Mill for the purpose of spinning cotton, and this cotton mill began to run in 1784. Mr. Smith retired from the firm and sold his share of the business to Rowland Watson and Joseph and John Blakey, they brought in James Greenwood.
William Marriner married Ann Flesher in 1792, Ann was the Niece of Abraham who had left the mill to his wife, on his wife's death the mill went to Ann, so Marriner was now a partner here too. John Blakey and Lister Ellis had partnerships and sold to Marriners.
The company of R.V. Marriner Ltd., of Greengate Mills, Keighley, worsted spinners and manufacturers, was established as Watson, Blakey, Smith and Greenwood (of Stubbin Oxenhope), cotton spinners c.1784. The company subsequently became William Marriner, 1784- 1808, B. & W. Marriner, 1808-88, Marriner, Son and Naylor, 1888-1908, and finally R.V. Marriner, 1908. Mr. Blakey giving up one third of Greengate Mill and contents to Wm. and Benjamin Marriner for one year, 1817. 
Berry Smith. Started life as a poor lad with no means and served and apprenticeship with William Carr to learn the trade of mechanic around 1790, he then went to work as a mechanic at West Greengate Mill, which at the time was producing cotton run by John, Joseph and Thomas Blakey and William Marriner. He stayed with them about three years before starting business on his own. (taken from Hodgson's book) Berry resided in a cottage which stands in the Hope Mill Yard, just opposite the gate which leads to the dwelling house attached to the mill. He had his workshop in his own chamber, where he set up his benches and lathes. Under his house was a cellar  cottage occupied by a man of the name Sunderland, who had a son named John that worked at West Greengate Mill while Berry was a mechanic there. When Berry started business on his own this young man John Sunderland went as his apprentice. Berry was repairing the machinery for the cotton trade getting most of his parts from Hattersley. Berry had no steam or power to turn his lathe, so employ someone to do it. Hodgson tells us that Berry employed a man called "Old Laddie" Common practice was to have what they called Shop Laws, so should one employee throw an object or swear to another employee they would be penalised twopence, Laddie was the exception as he would have had no wages to take home. He was so much in the habit of swearing he did not realise when he was doing it. If he was charged with swearing he would then swear at his accusers that he had not done it. After around five years Berry built Acers. Greengate Mill was demolished after a fire in 1975. 

Greengate Mill (East
Built by John Craven of Guardhouse 1791 on land bought from the Crown which had once belonged to Joseph Stell. John died in 1808 and he left the mill to is daughter and her husband William Corlass of Barrowford. 
In a newspaper item we read with interest the mention of a proposed new road  from Mr. Corlass mill through Greengate to The Market Place with a branch going to Sun Street.
 
Later A & J Hey occupied the mill turning it to worsted, and then Thomas Iveson,  Aaron Hey's son in law, who was a commission spinner, he was succeeded by J Mitchell who married a daughter of the above  John Craven. Ivson was only a tenant, renting from John Craven. It is from Hodson's book that we find that information.
In Aaron Hey's will it states "Thomas Iveson is to have the mill during my Lease for paying the sum of [ - ] shillings weekly and every week but as my property is sunk & become small I sincerely desire that in the first place you will take care to keep sum thing for the bringing up of those my Children that cant do for themselves & that my Wife be provide for these things I humble desire you will do and the Lord bless you in same".  We know at the time of the will Aaron owned a mill here, was it a different mill, or has we ascertained from the will Aarons fortunes had shrunk, was the mill sold to raise some capital?
He later moved to Hope Mill. Thomas Ivson built himself a new mill at Heys Gardens on land which he already owned, one would assume he acquired it via his marriage to Hey's daughter. After Iveson, Thomas  Thompson who lived in the adjoining house took on the mill and fitted it out for sizing cotton warp.
In Pigot's Directory of 1829 we find Mary Thompson sizer in the entry

Griffe Mill, Stanbury. 
Built by William Hollings for cotton weaving.  Hollings & Ross in one half, Thomas Lister the other half. Photo haworth-village.org.uk Built in the early 19th century, closed in 1929. A cobbled road now under feet of soil used to lead down from the Stanbury side, a rough  track then went up to the Oldfield side, in the time of the mill there was a way to avoid the hills down in the valley, now a foot path that pretty much follows the river. I seem to remember someone telling me years ago that the road was called Clay Lane or Road. James Ross was here in 1803. 1862 partnership dissolved between J Williamson, F Williamson, and R Williamson worsted manufacturers of Griffe Mill and Ponden Mill. 1868 Williamson Brothers, worsted spinners and manufactures employing 172 people. 


Grove Mill
, Ingrow.
keighley.plus.com Built as a cotton spinning mill by Ann Illingworth between 1794 and 1797 on land that belonged to her, mother of David Illingworth who was a draper in Church Green and William Illingworth. Ann built the mill for her son William. David and William had been in partnership with William Marriner at Castle Mill spinning cotton. William was in business at Grove for around twenty two years with cotton, but came to grief around 1819 and died about a year later.
Illingworths  rented to John & Robert Clough in 1822 for £230 per year,  who refitted the mill for worsted spinning with 12 spinning frames with 78 spindles each, and built a warehouse and a dwelling  on the mill site. From a death notice November 1822 for William Illingworth's wife at Grove Mill.
1823 John Midgley moved to Grove Mill to work for the Clough's, he was one of the oldest machine makers in Keighley. He served his apprenticeship with Titus Longbottom. In 1832 he moved to Wood mill and was general manager and mechanic for his father in law Thomas Waterhouse.
Illingworth sold to Robert  Clough  in 1831 and he rebuilt in 1832. John Clough lived at the mill house.   
Fire Photos Keighley.plus.com  
Water powered from Sun Beck giving eight or nine-horse power. Power looms were  installed in 1836, and in the same year he introduced a steam engine. He also produced gas. 1857 he bought a double headed combing machine for £192.11.0 from Hattersley and paid £975 to Cunliffe Lister for permission to use it. 1863 he bought a Lister single combining machine.
1868 Robert Clough, Worsted Spinner and Manufacturer, employing 504 people. 
Knocked down in 2010 by Skipton Properties.
          
                     

Guard house (see Calversyke Mill) John Brigg,

Hanover Mill
Worsted spinning. 1862 Townson Holmes sewing machine makers. 
1870 Thomas Cullingworth and Co. Worsted Spinners. - Bedford Benjamin - Feather George
1871 John Smith. 
1925 Spencer Mitchell & Co Worsted spinners. A Rhodes Textile machine makers.

Hanover Works
1870 Dean. Spencer and Co.

Harewood Hill, Robert Sugden, Worsted Manufacturer 1822

Hattersley's
 George. Loom Makers (for silk, worsted, cotton & flax)  hattersley.co.uk  
Taken from the Keighley News
Outbreak of war ended strike
 
This graphic illustration of workers at loom-makers and ironfounders Messrs George Hattersley and Sons Ltd has been supplied by Mr. Ronnie Shuttleworth, of Fell Lane, Keighley, whose father and uncle, William and Albert Shuttleworth, are in the group. He thinks the date would be about 1912.

The notice on the door reads: "Applicants for employment in this establishment should apply to the Board of Trade Labour Exchange".

Workmen like these were soon to become involved in the long and bitter Keighley engineers' strike, which lasted for more than three months in the summer of 1914 and was only ended by the outbreak of the Great War.

George Hattersley and Sons managed to keep a fairly low profile in the press coverage of the strike, issuing a statement that May explaining that they were "not members of any Masters' Federation and shall only deal direct with our own strikers. A large majority of our men have intimated to us that they have no grievance and are anxious to resume work. If they do so they may feel assured of our support."
However, as two months later their windows at North Brook Works and Cabbage Mills were among those of several firms to be broken by strikers, this seems to have suggested a rosy view of the situation.

Richard Hattersley came to Keighley from Eccleshall, Sheffield in 1789 and set up as a whitesmith at Stubbin House making bolts and screw nails, one of his customers was john Greenwood of North Brook Mill. The work place became known as Screw Mill. The old mill had water power from a powerful water fall. Greenwood left North Brook Mill to move into his new mill at Cabbage so Hattersley took over North Brook. Not only did the family extend their business into Bradford they took on Mythomes Mill, Higher and Lower Providence and also occupied Spring Head Mill.



Hey Gardens,
 
Built by Thomas Ivson who already owned the land, possibly came into his possession through his marriage to the daughter of Aaron Hey, he used it for commission spinning for a few years, he then sold to John Butterfield, who then left it in his will to his brother Isaac. Butterfield Brothers, (Frederick & Henry Isaac) Henry Isaac Butterfield who lived at Cliff Castle was one of the brothers. 1822 Isaac Butterfield, Chapel Lane, Worsted Spinners and Manufacturers.  When Isaac vacated the mill it was turned into cottages.

Highfield, Jonas Sugden, Worsted Manufacturer 1822


Higher Providence Mill, Oakworth. 
Built in 1803 by Mr. Leech of Halifax. Bought by James Haggas for his sons, William and John. 1825,  sold  to Hiram Craven who went into partnership with William Sugden it was re built and two water wheels put in.   James Mitchell had it for a few years until it was bought by George Hattersley and Sons in around 1860. Only the chimney remains.

Hill Top, (where Guard House estate is now) Hill Top was to the left of Green House, where the murder of Sarah Terry was committed. 
Richard Robinson, (son of Thomas Robinson, joiner, of Hill Top) Worsted Manufacturer. In 1817 he had 5 horse power. 1822 and 1829 we find him in the directory Stuff Manufacturer. 
From the Factories Inquiry Commission Questions put to him we are able to ascertain a little more about  the work place. Preparing and spinning sheep's wool, after it has passed the operation of combing, into worsted yarn. Worked by water alone; and by a small stream of water running down the north side of the parish. Employing Fifteen persons, in a regular week of seventy-two hours.  We begin at six in the morning, and end at seven in the evening. We allow one hour at noon for dinner; the other meals are mostly gotten while the frames are running, but the other hands sometimes mind them. We do not pay wages during sickness. We do not allow any wages for the holidays. We do not make any abatement in the wages for the hands being two or three hours too late, but the other hands usually mind the work of those who are absent. We do not want any under twelve years, but people are desirous of sending them sooner. I think it would be better if children under twelve years of age were not bound to work above ten hours per day.
1827 THE Commissioners in a Commission of Bankrupt bearing date the 4th day of April 1826, awarded and issued forth against Richard Robinson, of Hill-Top, near Keighley, in the County of York, Worsted-Manufacturer, Dealer and Chapman, intend to meet on the 14th of March next, at Twelve o'clock at Noon, at the Sun Inn, in Bradford, in the said County of York, in order to Audit the Accounts of the Assignees under the said Commission, and to make a Dividend of the estate and effects of the said Bankrupt;- when and where the Creditors, who have not already proved their debts  are to come prepared to prove the same, or they will be excluded the benefit of the said Dividend. And all claims not then proved will be disallowed.

Hollings Mill, Stanbury. 
We have conflicting information on who built the mill,  Mr. Michael Cousins or William Hollins. It then it passed into the hands of Mr. Thomas Lister. After that Mr. James Thomas, of Balcony. Mr Hartley Merral bought the mill. Mrs. Merrall (mother of the Merrall Brothers) lived at Low Hollings. Now a dwelling. 
The mill was reputed to be haunted.
It was a little mill with a large water wheel, and the dam was on the high side of the mill.  
From reading Who Was Who in Haworth in the Bronte Era, we read that William Thomas owned the mill by 1844 and it was operated by one of his sons William. It is possible he acquired it from when William Greenwood's estate had to be sold off. William Thomas lived and owned cottages in Brandy Row in Haworth, he and his son's were brandy, wine and spirit merchants, William was also a butcher. Among other properties that he owned was the Cross Inn. He owned numerous cottages, houses and farms.
1868 and listed in Reports of the the commissioners we find William Turner, worsted spinner and weaver. He was employing 100 people. 

Holme Mill,
below Fell Lane and the next mill down the river after Wood Mill, built in 1816 by Thomas Binns                    
  Photobucket
  


1844

Clipping top right 1856
Williamson & Rishworth,  Worsted Spinners and Stuff Manufacturers 1829 also at Croft House. 
1844 the mill, dwelling house and two gardens is for sale or rent from Binns of Croft House, and in the present occupation of Solomon Arnold. There is a waterwheel of 16 horses a steam engine of 10 horses and a 14 horse boiler.
August 1850 the mill in the occupation of Robert Pickles, the mill dam burst it's banks having been allowed to be come too full. The water washed much of the contents away. 1854 Robert Pickles is described as a spinner. The mill was later occupied by his son Edward Pickles. 
Holme Mills has been making paper tubes since 1892, when John Stell moved his Keighley business into this "substantially-built worsted mill, with very valuable water power" beside the North Beck, included a warehouse and office, coach house and cart-shed, “water-wheel, boiler, engine, weirs, mill races, goit and reservoirs”, a dwelling-house, some cottages, a farm and 11 fields covering 18 acres.
1898 Stell & Jackson Paper makers.
A disastrous fire  described as "the most spectacular blaze in the district for many years" occurred early in 1945
Holme mill  Mills & Hargreaves

Holme Mill, Lower, Bobbin Mill  Later called the Bobbin Mill

Jonas Laycock
W and C Lister (Lister and son) paper makers dissolved their partnership in 1856
1866 Lister & Wright, Lower Holme Mill, Keighley, Yorkshire—Glazed Boards, Millboards, Jacquard Cards. étc.
Ian Dewhirst tells us that Stell bought Holme Mill in 1892 and that Lower Holme Mill served as Stell's canteen and staff social centre, providing into the 1980s a venue for pie suppers and Easter bonnet parades.
1901 Fowler Beanland & Sons at Lower Holme Mill wringing machine makers, went bankrupt. (Towler Beanland, Arthur Beanland and Fowler Beanland, the younger)

Holme House Mill 
Built about 1794 by gentleman farmer called Horsfall on his own land. He spun cotton but after a number of years ran into difficulties so much so that his mill and farm had to be sold. It then went to Thomas Teal of New Road Side near to Hermit Hole, and then to Nimrod Mitchell who married the above Thomas Teal's granddaughter. Since being in the Teal family it had operated as a worsted mill and had a considerable number of tenants. At some point in the early 1800's James Judson the younger had for almost twenty years operated here. The elder James having been at Castle Mill.
1873 Advertised for rent.
Richard Horsfall. W Lund.

Holme House Mill (High)  
John Brigg worsted spinner bankrupt 1864.

Holycroft Mill
1925 Law Edmondson & Co Manufacturer 

Hope Mill, South Street. 

Mr. Corlass new road will improve Keighley

Built on the Greengate estate and was one of the first steam powered cotton mills to be built in Keighley by Thomas & John Corlass in 1800, building a new mill where a previous mill stood. Thomas Corlass, grandfather of Mr. Joseph Corlass, of Henry Street, KeighleyBut like many who had entered this industry found he could not make it pay, and one day being unable to take any more went to the engine tenter and told him to rake out the fire and stop the engine. And from that day ceased being a cotton spinner. Thomas and John Corlass, Cotton Spinners 1834 they are also listed the same year in the same directory as Worsted Spinners.
John Mitchell of Eastwood Square took the mill for worsted. 
At some time in the early 1800's Smith and Hartley rented room here, they gave up in 1826 when many of the other manufactures were going to the wall. 
At some time John Hanson of Spring Row was here as a commission spinner.
1851 John Feather, a wool comber by trade, became a manufacturer and commission spinner, operating the Hope Mills. Then bought by B Bedford.
Hope Mill, Damside and Low Bridge Mill were the only mills not powered by water.
1865 there is room and power available for rent and spinning machinery for sale.
1870 Feather John

Hope street, John Hartley, Worsted Manufacturer 1822. Isaac Butterfield, Worsted Spinners and Stuff Manufacturer 1829.

Ingrams Mill, Ingram Street
John Emmet & Son Paper Makers were here in 1829. John Clough,  Worsted Spinners and Stuff Manufacturers 1829. It was here that James Wright started up in 1866.


Ingrow Corn Mill
Dates from around the early 1800's. 
1829 the partnership of G Park and J Ambler corn dealers was dissolved. In 1839 Keighley had incredibly strong winds, so much so that it blow down the engine chimney of John Blakey's corn mill, Pushing a great portion of the mill into the water. Mr. Blakey lost about £800.
1855 the Rushworth Brothers were charged for adulteration of flour, as was John Blakey of Low Bridge.
The mill was later extended and a chimney added in 1841, the chimney was pulled down in 1918. There has been a building on the site since 1612, one of the first in Ingrow, it has gradually been surrounded by housing.  
Lodge Calvert a joiner was using the mill, he changed over to spinning. 
1925 Joseph Dixon Corn miller
Gutted by fire 1998. 

Ingrow Corn Mill to let 1870 

1872 Baxendale and Dixon overwork their carter

Seven pairs of stones, only four years since new.

Ingrow Lane
John Sugden who lived at Bracken Bank were he cultivated his own freehold farm was engaged in the manufacturing of stuff pieces. The mill was water powered from a small stream, the mill was later turned into cottages.

Ingrow Low Mill - Paper Mill, Ingrow
Manufactured paper. 1822 William Emmett is listed as paper manufacture, the same year George Emmett also of Ingrow Mill is listed as a worsted spinner. This small paper mill was demolished and replaced probably in or around the 1870s by Ingrow Mills, a worsted mill. 1870 Ambler Timothy and Sons paper manufacturers. 


To let 1812


To let 1819


Fire 1830


For sale1859 


 Drowning 1866


Ingrow mill
 
Henry Emmett, Worsted Spinners and Manufacturers 1822.
Ingrow Mill was adjacent to Grove Mill and was rented by John Clough before he moved to Steeton in the 1850's. 

Chimney blows down 1839 Benjamin Jackson found 
drowned in the mill dam 1866

Ivy Bank Mill (Folly Mill) Haworth.
1866 the mill is advertised for sale. lot 1 Two closes of land on the east side of Stubbing Lane containing three acres, two roods, and 34 perches, or thereabouts known as Folly Fields.
Worsted mill called Ivy Bank Mill with the warehouses, washing and scouring room and other buildings. Two reservoirs on the two closes. One pair of vertical steam engines, 30 horse power Cornish boiler, and the shafting etc. The mill is in the occupation of David Steel, Worsted spinner. There is an excellent never failing supply of pure spring water running through this lot.
Hoplini Bland. Thomas Bland and Sons Limited Worsted Spinners, 1871-1962. Established c. 1849 (at Becks Mill, Keighley)

Kensington Shed
Cotton

King Street
  Berry Smith,  Worsted Spinner, 1829. John Hanson, Worsted Spinners and Stuff Manufacturers 1829.

Knowles Mill,
Knowle Street, off South Street (formerly Heaton's of Keighley)

Laycock, James Lund, Worsted Manufacturer 1822

Lees Syke Mill, (Merralls) Cross Roads. 
Lees Mill was built on the site of Syke Mill.  Photo of fire haworth-village.org.uk
Steam-powered worsted spinning mill.

Long Lee, Joseph  Hanson, Worsted Manufacturer 1822 and 1834

Low Bridge Mill

Look for the three carved stone heads built into the chimney. malcolmhanson.co.uk  
Built by James Fox around 1800, about 1810 taken over to spin cotton by John Ellison Snr. who also kept the Crown Hotel. He was unable to  make the business pay and around 1821 he lost everything when the mill caught fire.
1822 Hartley Merrall took over. Joseph Rhoads, Worsted Manufacturer 1822.  John & Samuel Smith, Spindle, Roller and Ply Makers, 1829
The high winds of 1839 which brought down a number of chimneys in Keighley also brought down the chimney here, the engine chimney standing about 40 yards high gave symptoms of falling, alerted, Mr. Smith rose from his bed and evacuated all those living near that might be in danger should the chimney fall. Woolcombers that were in the washhouse were reluctant to leave their work, Smith turned off the steam in order to drive them out and to a place of safety, except two men who insisted on continuing with their work. At 8.30 the chimney came tumbling down, crushing the wash house, engine house and dwelling houses, among the rubble they discovered the two men, one John Stow was dead, but the other had survived. 
An 1849 map describes this mill as a corn mill
Two brothers John and Samuel Smith had started of at North Brook Mill working for the Hattersley's. In 1818 John left and took a small workshop that once stood behind a row of cottages at the bottom of Coney Lane. The cottages were pulled down for the extension of the gas works.  Soon after his brother joined him in partnership. They had neither steam or power to turn the lathe, so once more we turn to Hodgson to find out how they powered the lathe. They first employed an half witted man called Cornelius Holmes who was better known as Old Corney and also a blind man called Holmes who was better known as Blind Jim.  And here they stayed until moving to Low Bridge Mill which was occupied by John Ellison's cotton mill. The Smith brothers had the basement and manufactured rollers, spindles and flyers. We find them in Low Bridge Mill in White's Directory of 1834 and 1837. Some time later a fire broke out in the cotton mill, and there being no fire engine only the one belonging to Clayton of Low Mill all was lost. The brothers built new premises at Long Croft north west end of Low Bridge and turned to steam to operate their lathes. Samuel died 1850 and his brother William  lived at Flosh House. Nephew Samuel Smith was taken into the firm and the business was extended to the opposite side of the street. 1856 they commenced making engine tools and in 1863 spinning frames.
Around 1822 Thomas Smith moved from Walk Mill and took room on the basement floor of Low Bridge Mill which had recently been rebuilt after the fire. The mill had now gone from Cotton to worsted spinning by Hartley Merrall, Joseph Rhodes and Miss Butterfield, but they were not in partnership. 1827 Thomas Smith moved to the other side of the road to Low Bridge to a building that would be later occupied by Edward Chatburn who used it as a pipe makers shop. In this new place Thomas Smith had steam power which he obtained from Low Bridge Mill carried by a shaft across the road. In all places Thomas Smith had produced spinning frames, rollers, spindles, flyers and guides. In 1834 he moved yet again to Acers Mill.
1894 NOTICE is hereby given that the Partnership heretofore subsisting between us the undersigned James Judson Francis Titus Longbottom John Hudson carrying on business as Engineers and Millwrights at Low Bridge Keighley Yorkshire under the style or firm of Judson Longbottom and Hudson has been dissolved by mutual consent as and from the 26th day of November 1894.~-Dated 1st day of December 1894.
1893 Arthur Bottomley aged 16 of George Street, all but lost his life through being dragged around a shaft at Heaton and Beavers Mill
1898 Thomas Wilson Worsted spinners also Heaton & Beaver mohair spinners.


Lower Providence Mills, Oakworth. Built in 1806,  by Mr. Leach, for John Sugden and James Hey.  Later known as Jonas Sugden and Ross. Jonas was a  Methodist preacher. Bought by George Hattersley and Sons shortly after Higher Providence Mill. Demolished 1984 apart from the chimney and cottages.

Low mill
The first cotton mill built in Keighley, and in Yorkshire.
Building started by Thomas Ramsden of Halifax and completed by Clayton and Walshman from Lancashire 1780, the land belonging to the Cavendish family. 
Water power from Keighley beck giving  seventeen horse power. 
Clayton and Walshman started spinning cotton in 1780.
By 1788 there was a warehouse and a steam engine which was used to pump water back into the dam.
Claytons built a new mill in 1789, John Craven having bought the freehold from the Earl of Burlington. 
Clayton lived in a house here at Low Mill where he died in 1827, Tom Craven also lived here but we have not ascertained if this was at the same time.  The business was then carried on by his son as Clayton William & Son Cotton Spinners. 1822 William Clayton, Worsted Spinners and Manufacturers, but 1829 listed as Cotton Spinners. William Clayton left Keighley and went to live and work in Giggleswick and also had mills in Preston.
There used to be an odd shaped chimney to the south west of the mill that stood no higher than the mill it's self, it is believed that it was demolished in the early 1800's. It had most defiantly gone by the time Craven was in manufacture here. 
In 1829 the three private fire engines serving Low Mill were made available for public use, with a fire bell fitted at the mill in 1846.
We know that  William Clayton and Son were here at the time of the Factories Inquiry Commission of 1834 employing eighty people.
Low Mill was bought by John Craven c.1840 and converted to worsted manufacture,  sheds and warehousing were added thereafter. 
By the early 19th century  Low Mill House which  housed the mill master,  overlooked extensive gardens. 
1898 Heaton and Beaver mohair spinners 1925 John Heaton & Co.

Low Street Mill (now EMU) Thomas Illingworth, Worsted Spinners and Stuff Manufacturers 1829.
        
keighley.plus.com

Lumb Foot Mill
, Stanbury. Wright Brothers. James Wright lived at The Whins. The mill is now in ruins. 1868 Butterfield Bros. Worsted Spinners and Weavers employing 98.

Market Street Mill.
William Smith started work spinning cotton age nine at Low Mill, latter apprenticed at the same place as a mechanic, the foreman being Adam Pearson who was a noted mechanic who was reported to own an ass that was almost white and about one hundred years old. Having completed his apprenticeship he started on his own in a small way in two cottages at was then called Waggon Fold, now called Market Street. The premises were enlarged a few times, the two cottages became the offices when he built a complete new workshop. William Smith had seven son's and two daughters. Two sons Joseph and Samuel died in early manhood, the other sons James, Lawrence, William, Prince and George when of age were taken into the firm. The firm later took on the name William Smith and Sons and under this name it carried on till 1865. William died in 1850. George Smith the youngest partner retired from the firm and James the eldest brother built a new works at Threaproyd and with his sons continued as Smith and Sons. James died 1869 and the business continued with his his eldest son Thomas Ellison Smith and he was trained at the old firm at Market Street. William and Prince built a new works near to Low Mill and land they bought from the Duke of Devonshire and named it Worth Valley Works. 1865 Market Street Works were sold, the older part being bought by Ramsden brothers and the other part by William Smith, but his health failed and his son Joseph carried on the business for a few years but did not succeed. When the partnership at Worth Valley came about Prince Smith senior bought Burlington Shed from Samuel Cunliffe Lister. Prince and his son Prince carried on business under the name of Prince Smith and Son. 1870 Shackleton, Hoyle and Co

Marriner's Mill at Greengates  Mariner B. & W.  had it's own brass band which was formed in the 1840's. Edward D.A. Marriner of Greengates Mill, Keighley - magistrate, councillor and, in 1885, Mayor of Keighley. There was a family feud between Benjamin's two sons, Edward & William, which led to a division of the mill Marriners' Yarns

Mantra Mill, South Street
Situated near the toll bar. Four stories high, 111 feet long.
The  mill built in 1844 was used by W. & J. Bairstow Corn miller. From the newspaper report of 1852 we read that there was an older building that stood here, that would have been the mill called Plumpers Mill, this would suggest that it had been extended. 
The old mill was demolished 1931 and replaced by the mill we know today.  

 
 

Melbourne Mill, Craven Road (Chesham St)
1911 Colonial Combing Company Limited  commission woolcombers

Mitchell's Mill (We have yet to ascertain which Mr. Mitchell so we can say which mill). January 1833 the newspaper reported that Samuel Rhodes who had gone to work there age six and a half had been beaten savagely by the overlooker with a strap with nails in it. 


Mytholmes Mill, Oakworth. 
Merralls

1898 George Hattersley & Sons.

New Mill, also known as Robinson's Mill, Hazel Mill and Little Mill, Waterhead Lane, Stanbury.
 
The mill now where the reservoir is, was on the old packhorse route to Haworth Moor, sitting down in the bottom next to the beck.
Built around 1806. In 1838 William Robinson sold to George Taylor, James Feather occupied the mill. There is an illustration of the mill on page 117 A Spring Time Saunter by Whitley Turner.

Newsholme Higher and Newsholme Lower Mills
Robert Hall of Church Farm built both mills and they were both originally cotton mills. Robert who was a descendent of Robert Hall who in 1672 built church hall farm and owned a large part of the land in Newsholme. 
In his book Hodgson tells us of him meeting John Hall a grocer from Oakworth who told how his grandfather John Hall was brother to Robert Hall and that when Robert died John went to live at the great house. The lower mill was occupied for around forty years by Jonas Laycock bobbin manufacture, hence the popular name of the Bobbin Mill. The partnership of T Bland and J Brigg worsted spinners at Lower Newsholme Mill was dissolved March 1820
John Midgley continued at Wire mainly manufacturing power looms. John Midgley went to live at Newsholme and occupied High Newsholme Mill manufacturing Cotton band for driving spindles, he later bought the mill and a small farm with buildings from F Greenwood of Norton Conyers.
For Sale 1865

North Beck Mill
Built by Joseph Binns, he was married to William Lund's sister Alice. About 1838, William Lund purchased Mr. Binns' interest in the North Beck Mill. At some point it might have come under the ownership of the Earl of Burlington, for we are sure he owned it at the time William Lund was here.
1925 we find three companies occupying the mill. John Hudson & Co Wool merchant. Smith Brothers & Spencer Ltd Textile manufactures. A Sugden Wool merchant. 

North Brook Mill, Beck Street  
Either Greenwood or Hattersley added on to the above to enlarge North Brook which was shown on the 1852 town plan as  Greengate Foundry
John Greenwood built a small cotton mill here in 1784 using water power, it was only the size of four cottages. The only other cotton mill at this time was Low Mill. Using both steam and water power, the water from the North Beck. Steam-engine, thirty horse power. In 1834 they employed fifty eight people, including two warehousemen, of twenty-one and thirty-two years of age.
1784-1807 John Greenwood and Sons. Greenwood would later build Cabbage Mill and house.
Hattersley bought the mill around 1800 and extended it extensively. 
1854 A young man named James Smith, residing at Keighley, has met with an Appalling Death. He had been an apprentice with Messrs. Hattersley, machine- makers of Keighley, but had latterly been leading an idle life and wandering about the country. Being destitute and without lodgings, he lay down to sleep between two limekilns. One of them was partly empty, but still emitted a sulphurous stench and smoke, and the other was burning and rod. At two o'clock a person, passing by saw the youth near the empty pit, and having warned him of his danger passed on. Another person, named Wakefield, approached the kiln about half-past six o'clock, and found the body on the top of the burning lime. He immediately aroused a workman who resided hard by, and the remains were drawn off with an iron drag! The legs and bowels were entirely consumed, the flesh burnt" from the ribs, the eyes from their sockets, the hair and scalp from the skull, and the arm upon which he had fallen was entirely gone. A mass of charred and blackened matter alone remained, scarcely distinguishable as the vestiges of a human being. It is supposed that he had been partly suffocated by the fumes issuing from the nearly empty kiln, and that when rolling over in half unconscious agony he had dropped into the one adjoining. His cap lay upon the brink, and from that alone his name and occupation have been traced.

North Street, William Smith, Worsted Manufacturer 1822

Oakworth Mill. (Lane Ends Mills) Oakworth. Built by James Mitchell  
It was applied to the worsted spinning in the year 1828. Powered by water giving about ten horse power; it also has to work three pairs of stones for grinding corn, and the corn machinery. 1834 Described as a corn and worsted mill owned by David Illingworth, the upper part of the mill being used for worsted.
1834 a George Bolton a laborer took Illingworth to task over injuries he received when the gas tank exploded, he won £70 damages. The mill was being operated as a corn and worsted mill.
1856 advertised for sale with dwelling house and stable with hay chamber above. In the occupation of Abraham Roe. 
Bought by James Haggas in 1860. 

Old Oxenhope Mill. Destroyed by fire in 1962. John Greenwood had a small spinning mill here around 1810

Park Lane, Richard Butterfield, Worsted Manufacturer 1822

Paragon Works, Dalton Lane
J T Sykes Wool Merchant 1950

Parkside Works, Parkwood Street
Established in 1870 by Messrs. Baldwin, Feather, and Co
1874 W. & S Summerscales, Washing and Wringing Machine Makers

Peel Mill, South Street


Built in 1920 on the site of a former mill pond.
John Ambler, worsted
1925 Smith Turner & Brown Ltd Manufacturers 
Later occupied by F. W. Carr and son, wire healds and reed makers, company originally establish in 1840.

Perseverance Mill, Coney Lane
Owned by Cyril Smith who also operated the top floor, Norman Petyt had the bottom floor and operated as a commission weaver.

Phoenix Foundry
W. Summerscales & Sons

Plumpers Mill, South Street. Four stories high, built by Mr. Wilkinson, William Wilkinson got caught up in the Butterworth Panic he lost £14000.00 and died in the workhouse. Bairstows Corn Mill was later built here, see Wire Mill. 1826 Thomas Bailey took over the mill, he also occupied a warehouse in Spring Street which had also been built by Wilkinson, both buildings being owned at the time by a bank in Halifax. The warehouse was later converted to cottages. Bailey gave up the mill in 1839.

Ponden Mill, Stanbury


Built in 1791 as a cotton spinning mill and we know it was spinning in 1795, and there was a corn mill next door. The chimney was added when the mill was converted from water to steam power.
Robert Heaton of Ponden Hall. Ponden Band was around in 1854. They played at the celebrations in Haworth at the end of the Crimean war. A Directory of the Halifax Manufacturers' Hall published in 1787 tells us Robert Heaton, of Ponden,  Stanbury, had Room No. 120 in the Rustic.
1823 To be Let by ticket.
1832 We find John Lonsdale of Colne is the leaseholder of mill and tenements for a rent of £50
1862 partnership dissolved between J Williamson, F Williamson, and R Williamson worsted manufacturers of Griffe Mill and Ponden Mill


Prince-Smith & Stells, 
Burlington Shed.

Prince Smith Textile machine makers,  founded  towards the end of the eighteenth century by William Smith
Silver Band (Keighley) Active in the 1950s. March 7 Joseph Batson a young man of Close Street was seriously burned while engaged in japanning at Prince Smith and Sons, Keighley. For more about the Smith's see above Market Street Mill.
1893 Joseph Bateson a young man of Close Street was seriously burned while engaged in japanning at Prince Smith and Sons

There is a nice site showing an image of the Prince Smith bowling green on News from Nowhere


Prospect Mill
1833 - Butterfield Brothers built Prospect Mill
1848 Pickles Constantine.
It then becomes one of four mills owned by the  Wright Brothers. 
1898 H Hey & Co Ltd worsted spinners. 
1907 George H Laxton and Gordon Holmes founded the worsted spinning firm, Holmes Laxton & Co, at Vale Mills, Oakworth. The onset of the Second World War cut the workforce as men went to fight but, after the conflict ended, George Laxton invested in new machinery and set up at Prospect Mill, Keighley. He died in 1956, the business then being transferred to Ingrow by his son, also called George, and Gordon Holmes.
1925 Messrs Hey and Co at Keighley Parish Feast, they treated their employees to a nine-day tour of the Great War battlefields in Belgium and France in a charabanc.

Providence Mill - Lower
1866 repertory of patent inventions: Robert Newton, of Lower Providence Mill, near Keighley, means or apparatus for generating steam in steam boilers.


Providence Mill viewfinder.english-heritage.org.uk

James Hartley,  Stuff Manufacturers 1829. 
1837 J Sugden and sons here and also at Mytholmes Mill
Worsted.Partnership dissolved 1857 Brown, William, and William Hargreaves, Stonecutters, Heyworth, York, and at Providence Mill, Keighley

Rag Mill (Paper Mill) at Goose Eye (See Brow End Mill)

Royal Mills

Royd Works Royd Lane

 1898 David Pickles manufacturer.
Roberts Dyers & Finishers Ltd


Sandywood Mill 

Once a house owned by John Oldridge then converted in to a mill, which reverted back to a house in the early 1800's. It had been used for the Bowling Green Club and also a ladies boarding school, it stood in a very fashionable part of town. Once converted into a mill it was powered by water obtained from two streams, one came down Highfield lane and came down near to where the Catholic Church stands, where it meet with another stream that came down Spring Gardens Lane, the two streams united where then carried across the road in a culvert to a water wheel. Cotton spinning came to an end here when Oldridge emigrated to the USA in 1819. For more information on Sandy Wood House/Mill please see the houses page

Spring Gardens, George Ramsden, Worsted Manufacturer 1822

Walter Slingsby & Co, Station Works

Wm. Smith and Sons, Denbigh square
Machine Makers. From the Factories Inquiry Commission questions we can find out a little more about what working life was like at this place.
Spinning of worsted yarn, and making of rollers and spindles for worsted machinery. Setting up about 1830. The power of the steam engine is sixteen horse. Employing Thirty persons. 

South Street
Titus Longbottom was employed by Berry around 1807 as a joiner in the production of making worsted spinning frames. Titus was only with Berry for about two years before he left and started business on his own, yet they had developed a great friendship which lasted all their lives, even though they were many times to be in direct competition in business. Titus built in 1815 a house and machine shop in South Street but sadly were burnt down in 1863. Sugden of Fleece Mills had obtained most of his machinery from him, as did Craven and Brigg of Walk Mill and Browend. 
1898 I Firth & Co Worsted spinners. 

Springfield Mill Oakworth Road.  
Built in 1870s by  James Collingham, bought in 1879  by  Messrs Smith and McLaren.  When Walter SB McLaren withdrew from the partnership, Sir Swire Smith carried the business as Swire Smith & Bro., worsted spinners. 
Henry Collingham and brother James Collingbam were in partnership, under the name of James Collingham and Sons, until the death of James,  then going  bankrupt in 1878. The story goes that the two brothers fell out and when a clock tower was built one said he “would not give the other ‘the time of day,” so the tower only has thee clock faces, with a bricked up circular blank opposite where the other had his office. 
1898 Richard Hattersley Also Swire Smith & Brothers Worsted spinners. 
Wolseys' hosiery manufacturer Wolsey Ltd  until the 1960s, then Johns Craft, and now used by the  Keighley Furniture Project    ngfl.ac.uk  dobsongasket.com
Taken from THE MASTER SPINNER
SPRINGFIELD MILL, which Swire Smith was to run as long as he remained in business, might have been built for him by a patron. It was new ; it had cost 10,000 more than Smith and McLaren gave for it; and, as great care had been taken to build it well and to equip it with the best machinery, the partners would save 1,000 a year in power and wages. The story of this building was a little strange: "One man soweth and another reapeth." The spinner by whom it was designed with a fearless enterprise was dead, leaving a cartload of empty champagne bottles in his cellar. He built a model mill and died, and then, to the edification of many admirers, he went into bankruptcy; though he had built a mill, he had not paid for it. This, in fact, was a man who had made money rapidly after the war, and had hoped to go on doing so; but he owed 30,000 to the Bradford Banking Company, who now, it seems, were glad to sell the mill for half that sum. Smith & McLaren were commonly thought to have purchased a white elephant. An unfriendly local newspaper, the Keighley Herald, flattered them with the remark that "a Roman general who had lost a battle was rewarded by the citizens because he had not despaired of his country"  a sneer which perfectly appraised Swire Smith's temper, if he had lost no battle yet. The mill doubled his spinning plant, and with the help of his young associate he would have to double his business. However, he did not attempt more. The two smaller mills were dismantled. It was sufficient that, if the worsted industry were saved and any golden age brought in, there would be plenty of room to build again at Springfield.

Spring Head Mill, Oakworth

The mill, cottages and a house built by John Heaton in 1790, the son of Michael Heaton of Birks and Miss Sugden of Dockroyd who we believe was the daughter of Abraham Sugden. For a number of years John Heaton was spinning here, the weavers operating from their own homes and the finish goods being sold at the Manchester market.
Joseph Greenwood 1808-1829 cotton spinning. After Greenwood's death taken over by Mr. Merrall
1898 Richard Hattersley & Sons

Some time in the early 1900's two tennis courts and a bowling green were built at the back of the mill and they can be seen on the 1933 map.

Spring head  Bailey Thomas, Worsted Spinners. 1831 W Haggas took on the mill with his two sons James and William.

Stockbridge Mill
Bailey and Smith, commission wool combers, partnership dissolved 1875. 1878 Margaret Ann Murphy lost three fingers while cleaning a combing machine, one of the masters, Daniel Smith (another newspaper reports that it was a Samuel Smith) asked for the picker, disappeared out of sight, the picker was used to start the machine, unfortunately Ann was still cleaning it at the time. 
1898 J Mitchell & Co Mohair Spinners. 

Strong Close also called Cowling Mill and Dalton Mill

See Dalton Mill


Formerly called Cowling Mill. William Clayton and Sons were here in 1837 and also at Low Mill. 
William Robinson,  Worsted Spinners and Manufacturers of Strong Close, Keighley (White's Directory 1853)


Stubbing Mill,
originally set up to manufacture screws and became known as Screw Mill (also known as Aireworth, but Aireworth might have been a different building), Built by Samuel Blakey 1787 and in 1792 turned to cotton. It became known as Screw Mill when Cawood, Wright and Binns made screws here, Cawood left in 1789 and Rowland Watson became a partner at Greengate. Hattersley was in partnership with Thomas Binns until 1810 when Binns died.
Richard Hattersley then commenced the manufacture of bolts and screws here. See above section on Hattersley's. Might have been rebuilt in 1813. Powered by Water-wheel on the river Worth of twenty-horsepower.
1822 Calvert and Clapham, Worsted Spinners and Manufacturers. 1834 they were employing ninety one people. 
NOTICE is hereby given, that the Partnership lately subsisting between us the undersigned, Lodge Calvert, Samuel Blakey Clapham, Blakey Calvert, and Edward Calvert, carrying on business at Bradford and Stubbing-house, in the township of Keighley, both in the county of York, as Worsted Spinners and Manufacturers, was, on the 31st day of August last, dissolved by mutual consent. All debts due to and owing from the said partnership will be received and paid by the said Lodge Calvert, Blakey Calvert, and Edward Calvert, by whom the said business will in future be carried on at Bradford aforesaid: As witness our hands this 12th day of September 1844. 
1839

Sun Street
Rhone Spinning Co Ltd 1950

Temple Bar, John Murgatroyd, Worsted Manufacturer 1822

Turkey Mill Goose Eye.
Paper mill established in 1797,  originally water powered cotton mill. In 1822 John Town took over the Turkey Mill. paper production ceased in 1932 and the mill became used for worsted manufacture. It is believed that John Town gave it the name Turkey Mill, after the paper mill in Maidstone, Kent.
1826 On Saturday morning, two boys, chimney-sweepers, were engaged, to sweep the flues, in the Turkey Paper Mill, near Keighley. One of the boys, named Henry Johnson, proceeded to clear them of their contents, but after staying a considerable time longer than was necessary, and, after being repeatedly called, the other boy went in search of him, but had not proceeded far before he was obliged to retire with nearly the loss of his life.
After being three hours in the flue, the unfortunate boy was extricated a corpse, from suffocation. The little sufferer was fourteen years of age. He retold a few days before his death, most affecting narrative of his adventures; he said his father was a stone mason, in comfortable circumstance's, but apprenticed him to a chimney sweeper a few years ago. His master disposed of him to Peter Hall, of Keighley, who, he said, used him most inhumanely, often beating him, and allowing him nothing but the soot bags to lie upon
1831 we found a newspaper entry dissolving the partnership of J. Smith and Co paper manufacture of Turkey Mill.
1833 One of the paper manufacturers at Turkey Mill, a little intoxicated, having passed Lunds Mill walking on the wrong side of the beck, slipped and fell. His body was found the next morning.
1866 Joseph Town & Sons, Turkey Mill, Keighley, Yorkshire—Fine Writing Papers. 1868
Joseph Town & Sons employing 105 people they were still there in 1898. 


When the mill closed in 1932 it was run by Messrs Portals Ltd, of Laverstoke, in Hampshire, employing 100 workers, producing paper for Indian rupees and Australian banknotes, we know they were at the mill in 1925. After it was used for storing sugar and wool.
We have found an entry in a 1950 directory which gives S Walker Wool Merchant of Turkey Mill. 

Upper Green, William Smith and son, Worsted Spinners and Manufacturers 1822.

Vale Mill, Oakworth. 

1795-1844 John Greenwood and Sons
Not only did Greenwood's build the mill, they also built a row of cottages and at one end of the row they built a school room which was used for holding Methodist Sunday School and services. Greenwood then bought the small farm adjoining the mill which he paid over the odds for, no one could understand his reasoning for this, but all soon became clear, included was a small waterfall and he conducted the water from this to the mill and put in another waterwheel. 
Built around 1785 as a cotton spinning mill by James Greenwood he was employing orphaned girls from as young as five, assigned to him from the Foundling Hospital in London.
Bought by Jonas Sugden in 1844.
The mill was owned for many years by Rouse Bros. of Halifax. Dances held in the canteen were  popular.
 

Verity and Shuttleworth, Strawberry Street

NOTICE is hereby given, that the Partnership heretofore subsisting between us, the undersigned, William Verity and Jerome Shuttleworth, carrying on business as Builders and Contractors at Keighley, in the county of York, under the style or firm of "VERITY AND SHUTTLEWORTH" has been dissolved by mutual consent as from the 5th day of May. 1914.—As witness our hands this 5th day of May, 1914. 

Victoria Mill
1925 Smith & Co Manufacturers. 

Victoria Park Mill, Hard Ings Road
1950 Percy Thompson Ltd  -Worsted 1950 Chatsworth Mill Co -Worsted.

Victoria Works.
1870 JACQUES & WRIGHT Manufacturers of lustre Orleans


Walkers Mill (Old Fulling) 
Was replaced by Walk Mill, had been named Walkers mill because of in the process Walkers Earth had been used. In the parish death registry we found the following entry, March, 1738 - 9, the death of Thomas Brook, the Fulling Miller. 
Drawing by John Farish 1785-1858


Walk Mill,
The Walk (Stell's Mill)
Walk Mill
Was owned by Stell who used it as a silk mill, but taken by the Crown and sold in 1776 to John Craven a messuage, or tenement, cottages and buildings situated and being near the Low Bridge in Keighley.  Stell came to a sticky end, you can read more here
1783 John Craven, Thomas Brigg and Abraham Shackleton formed a partnership. Abraham Shackleton died in 1805 and John Craven the younger, son of John Craven was taken into the firm.
Spinning was powered by water and the spinning frames were obtained from Titus Longbottom.
1822 the partnership was dissolved and Mr. Craven took on Walk mill himself. Thomas and John Brigg continued at Brow End. Mr. Craven then brought in his two sons, John and Joseph, they made plainbacks or merinos, wildbores and dobbins.
Baines's Directory and Gazetteer Directory of 1822 Craven & Briggs Worsted Spinners and Manufacturers.
1845 Joseph Corlass retired as manager.
Thomas Smith
took room and power at Walk Mill after leaving a chamber on Coney Lane where the gas works were then built, at this place in Coney Lane he had been in partnership with William Keighley which began around 1815. At this place Smith and Keighley had neither steam or water power for their lathes which would have needed to be turned by hand. 1820 William left the partnership and and set up business as a clock maker. Prior to the partnership Thomas had learnt his trade with Berry Smith. Around 1822 Thomas Smith moved from Walk Mill and took room on the basement floor of Low Bridge Mill which had recently been rebuilt after the fire.
1868 J. & J. Craven & Company, Woollen Spinners and Manufacturers (also at Dalton Mill)
1896 while still owned by the Craven family but in the occupation of Ikeringill's who also occupied mills at Eastwood, Dalton Lane and the newly acquired Legrams Mill in Bradford were subject to fire reports The Leeds Mercury, Monday, November 2, 1896. They reported that insurance should cover the damage but that around seven hundred people would be thrown out of work.
1925 J T Sutcliff & Co Ltd Worsted spinners. Also George Hattersley tapes and webbings.
Grade II listed building laying  virtually empty for over a decade. Since its last days as a working mill, a handful of  companies, including architects, printers and widget assemblers, have rented space there. 

Wellington Street
Joshua Cowling, b1759 at Well House, near Silsden, cousin to David and John Cowling of Dalton Mill, moved to Laycock in 1784 where he started business  as a manufacturer of stuff pieces, employing both combers and weavers. He built a house and mill about 1802 and moved to live at Braithwaite in 1826, he died 1839.
Baines's Directory and Gazetteer Directory of 1822 Woolstapler: Cowling Joshua, 65, Wellington Street. Pigot's Directory of 1834  Mr. Joshua Cowling Braithwaite

Wellington Foundry
1870 Clapham Brothers

West Lane Mill

 1898 Joseph King Fancy goods manufacturer and J.H Binns & Co Worsted coatings. 

Williamson's Mill see Beck's Mill

Wire Mill, Ingrow. 
Built around 1780 by John Walker, four stories in height, built on the site of Bairstow's Corn Mill.
1835 Thomas Waterhouse moved to Wire Mill and John Midgley continued to work with him there as general manager and mechanic. Later Thomas Waterhouse moved to West Greengate Mill and John Midgley continued at Wire mainly manufacturing power looms. John Midgley went to live at Newsholme and occupied High Newsholme Mill manufacturing Cotton band, he later bought the mill and a small farm with buildings from F Greenwood of Norton Conyers.

Wood mill, Laycock, 

Powered by water from the North Beck, Five-horse power. 
built by John Shackleton of Laycock, whether he ever operated the mill himself we have yet to establish. John Shackleton sold in 1810 to Thomas Waterhouse who in 1822 is listed as having two drapers shops, 9 Low Street and 9 South Street. Hodgson tells us that around 1834 he also had a number of looms for weaving cotton at the old workhouse at Exley Head, his brother Joseph Waterhouse was the workhouse master and also a weaver so was able to oversee the work. 
1837 Thomas took room and power at West Greengate Mill.
1823 John Midgley moved to Grove Mill to work for the Clough's, he was one of the oldest machine makers in Keighley. He served his apprenticeship with Titus Longbottom. In 1832 he moved to Wood mill and was general manager and mechanic for his father in law Thomas Waterhouse. In 1834 he was employing fifteen people at Wood Mill. 1835 Thomas Waterhouse moved to Wire Mill and John Midgley continued to work with him there.
1810 until 1826 Richard Robinson.  1814-1832 John Rishworth. We find in Hodgson's book that John's son, Benjamin Rishworth, was in the habit when only ten years old, of carrying the cash for wages from Fell Lane, through Holme House Wood to the Woodmill, sometimes at ten o’clock at night.
John Smith the son of Jonas Smith a farmer at Brogden near Laycock was here for a time, approximately 1837 till 1853. He took Wood Mill to spin yarn, around a year later he introduced power looms into the mill but still continued to employ handloom weavers. He gave up around 1853. 
In 1881 Benjamin Hird had the mill and was living there with his wife and son, all of which worked at the mill, Benjamin was operating as a worsted spinner, employing 18 people. 
1925 J W Shackleton & Son Worsted spinner. 

Worth Mill
1870 Roper and Cooke

Worth Valley Works
Dean Smith & Graces.


************

Before the Mills

We know from the parish registers that cloth was being produced in the area as early as 1571 when John Hartley a clothier was buried. Areas shown on old maps with names such as "Tenter Croft" give us a clue that this was where cloth was stretched out. 
Farmers while out in the field would pick up stray pieces of fleece, take it home and when they had a good amount the farmers wife and/or daughter would card and spin the wool into a thick thread called a Garn which they would then knit into stockings.
The outlaying districts were the first to get involved with the production of material. The lower lands lending them self's to farming having the better land farming 50/50, animals and corn. Farmers in the higher ground struggled unable to grow crops to feed the animals, if they
only had a small holding cloth provided the main stay of the income to provide the funds with which to buy corn to feed the stock. In this case the whole family would be involved, the work being done upstairs where the light was better. Where farming was the main occupation the production of cloth would be left to the wife and children.
Home weavers often bought the fleece, or bought it already spun, unusual for a farmer to have enough sheep to provide the fleece needed, care for the sheep and still have enough time to produce cloth which was a lengthy process. Access to water was impotent, the fleece would need cleaning to remove it of grease before it could be processed, a sort of dam arrangement would be constructed so that the fleece could be placed there and the running water do its work before being carded. Once woven into cloth the material would again need washing and then would be tentered out to dry.

While Mills were built for the mass production of cloth we know that large buildings were needed in the production, and what we now know as Walkers Mill was once a Fulling Mill, and again from the parish registers we see Thomas Brook, Fulling Miller buried 1738. the Keighley register records the death of a shalloon maker in 1724, and a woolcomb maker in 1725.

Clapham's of Utley were a family that combined farming and manufacturing. Holmes Clapham was active a woolstapler in 1788 who sold wool to James Haggas of Oakworth Hall and to John Holmes of Pitcher Clough, Holmes buying as much as 40 packs at a time which would have been a very large amount when one considers that the yarn would be spun by hand wheel. He also sold to Cunliffe and Cockshott of Addngham the first in Yorkshire to spin worsted by machine. William Hodgson of Paper Mill Bridge. Mr Clapham had two warehouses for his wool, Church Green and Low Utley. Chapman would go to Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and East Riding of Yorkshire to buy and sell wool. When Holmes Clapham died his sons did not continue, but instead went into the paper trade. Two sons took on the warehouse in Church Green to sell the paper produced by their two brothers who were at East Morton and manufactured paper there.

William Sharp was a farmer living at Whorls near Laycock, he was also a woolstapler journeying to North and East Ridings, as well as Lincolnshire and Leicestershire to buy wool. His father kept the Mason's Arms Inn, Low Street, behind the Inn stood some farm buildings which he allowed his son William to use for storage and weighing of the fleeces. This William was the father of William Sharp that took to his bed when he was rejected as a husband. Three Laps


Most of the first mills built in Keighley were built for the production of cotton.
By 1878 there were 70 mills in Keighley but as late as 1847 Hope and Cabbage Mills were still spinning cotton.
Even back then woman were making their way in the industrial work place, Ann Illingworth, Miss Rachael Leach, and Mrs. Betty Hudson built and operated textile mills.

Butterworth Panic 1826. We have not been unable to find very much on this subject, but what we have ascertained is that the banking problems we have seen of late are not new. The Bradford Woolcombers strike and the attitude of Keighley manufactures to  Union workers brought financial disaster. The Financial collapse of Butterworth's had a devastating effect on Keighley. More than sixty banks stopped payments. Messer's. Butterworths were the first to go under, hence the description Butterworth Panic.
The Ropers of Damems Mill  went from riches to rags. Thomas Parker of Dam Side Mill was in debt to the tune of £1380.16s. Thomas Corlass went one morning to his Hope Mill and asked the engine tenter to rake out the fire and stop the engine. Ian Dewhirst tells us that one bankrupt said " I went into business with £700 in good money and now after struggling hard for a number of years I am a ruined man". William Wilkinson who built a worsted  mill in South Street lost £14000.00 and died in the workhouse.

During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the inhabitants of the upper regions of Yorkshire obtained a scanty livelihood by spinning, first for the Norwich market, and afterwards for the Yorkshire stuff makers, adult females earning three shillings and sixpence a week, and children two pence or three pence a day. The inhabitants of Keighley and Haworth were among the most expert spinners. Gradually the weaving of stuffs grew to importance here, and absorbed the more ancient manufacture, that of woolen cloth. When Pennant visited Keighley, in 1771, he noted that this town "possessed a considerable manufacture of figured everlastings, in imitation of French silks, and of shalloons and calamancoes;" likewise that the inhabitants "were employed in spinning for the stocking weavers." To this day pieces are here woven something similar to these figured everlastings.

Shortly after this visit by Pennant, some of the enterprising men of Keighley planted in this town the cotton manufacture, which henceforward, for many years, almost destroyed that of worsted. An old and intelligent informant states that the first cotton mill was erected at Keighley about the year 1780. Others were soon after erected, and for many years cotton constituted the staple trade of the town Early in this century, worsted factories began to be erected in the parish, the manufacture grew, and gradually cotton mills one by one were applied to worsted. In Aikin's Picture of England, published in 1804, there is the following:— " Keighley has a manufactory of figured everlastings, shalloons, &c., and broad cloth. This town is the northern boundary of the makers of goods for Halifax market. The same goods are made on the banks of the Calder. The frugality and industry of these people enable them to undersell their rivals in foreign markets."

From the amount of drawback claimed by the manufacturers of Keighley, for forty years, a very accurate notion will be obtained of the consumption of wool there in that interval; and from these accounts the subjoined statement has been framed.

YEAR. LBS. YEAR. LBS.
1810 382,080 1835 3,313,920
1815 977,280 1840 4,224,000
1820 1,628,160 1845 5,345,2SO
1825 2,275,200 1850 5,932,809
1830 3,582,720    

This increase is larger per cent. than even Bradford, but less than in Halifax.

Keeping pace with the consumption of wool, the increase of factories has also been very rapid in Keighley.* The parish in 1835, contained 22 worsted mills, with 9 steam engines of 107 horse power, and 15 water-wheels of 181 horse power (together 288,) and employing 1,061 hands, of which 53 were children between nine and eleven years of age, and 613 young persons between eleven and eighteen. There were then only 4 cotton mills of 95 horse power, with 196 hands. On turning to page 487 it is seen, that in the year 1838, the worsted mills numbered 38, with 424 horse power, and 2,125 workpeople; but, in 1850, though the mills were nearly similar in number, the motive power had been augmented to 632, and the number of persons employed to 4,357,

* The following is extracted from the Returns sent in 1834 to the Factory Inspectors, but Returns do not seem to have been sent from all the mills in Keighley.

Mill occupied by Berry & Smith, built in 1810, 20 horse power in 1834; by by N. Constantino, built in 1811, 18 horse power; by Calvert & Clapham, built in 1813, 20 horse power; by Richard Robinson, erected about 1817, 5 horse power; by Benjamin and William Marriner, applied to worsted in 1818, 30 horse power; by William Sugden, (Fleece Mill,) built in 1820, 42 horse power; by William Sugden, (Damems) applied to worsted in 1824, 14 horse power; by Lund & Sugden, built in 1824, 12 horse power; by David Illiugworth, applied to worsted in 1828, 10 horse power; by William Lund, built in 1830, ^power not stated;) by William Smith & Sons, built in 1830, 16 horse power; by Thomas Waterhouse, built in 1831, 5 horse power; by Hartley & Merrall (date not stated) 20 horse power. showing that the business, growing as it was, had become concentrated in fewer hands; 17 of these mills were used for spinning ; 14 for spinning and weaving ; and 8 for weaving only. The 17 mills for spinning were worked by 230 horse power (of which 149 consisted of steam and 81 of water) turning 28,642 spindles and employing 1,013 hands; the 14 mills for spinning and weaving possessed 322 horse power, (198 steam, and 124 water,) working 27,844 spindles, 1,484 looms, and employing 2,581 hands; and the 8 weaving factories had 61 steam power and 18 water (together 79) with 835 looms and 863 hands. Owing to the absurd restriction before noticed under the head of Halifax, the number of mills, the amount of horse power, and number of hands at present employed in Keighley, cannot be ascertained, else there is no doubt a great growth would be observed. Keighley stands proudly distinguished among the towns of the worsted district; for in all seasons, even when trade in other stuff-producing localities has been at a very low ebb, the manufacturers here, as a body, may be said to have pursued the even tenor of their way. Hence the workpeople have been well employed, and with two or three trifling exceptions, mainly arising from the two-loom system, there have been no strikes or turnouts among them. Most of goods manufactured in the parish are plain Orleans and cobourgs. The fancy department is not much cultivated here; a few 'drawboys,' once so wide-famed, are still made in the parish; but the thoughts of the bulk of the manufacturers of Keighley are steadily fixed on producing a good marketable piece at the lowest price. A considerable quantity of worsted yarn is also spun here for export.

The population of Keighley parish amounted in 1801 to 5,743 persons; in 1811 to 6,864; in 1821 to 9,223; in 1831 to 11,309; in 1841 to 13,378; and in 1851 to 18,258, an increase threefold in fifty years. (taken from Google books)

WAGES OF WOOL-COMBERS.—We understand that the master- manufacturers of Keighley have reduced the wages of their wool- combers one farthing per Ib., with the understanding that they shall be advanced again as soon as any perceptible improvement in trade will justify such a step. The prices of weaving were also reduced at the same time from 6d. to 3d. per cut. We are sorry that the manufacturers should have thought it necessary or advisable to reduce the wages of their servants, because a reduction even to this small extent inflicts a hardship upon the poor weaver or comber ranch greater than the advantage derived by the consumer, or even the manufacturer himself; and the demand for goods is seldom increased by the fall in prices,-— Leeds Intelligencer.  

The worsted manufacture is carried on extensively, and there are two establishments for cotton spinning, one erected about 1780, by the celebrated Sir Richard Arkwright, father of the cotton trade. A great part of the machinery used in the factories, is made in the town; and there are two paper mills, and several large corn mills. The worsted stuffs of the place are chiefly sent to the Bradford market, and are forwarded by the merchants to their various destinations. (taken from  The Annals of Yorkshire from the Earliest Period to the Present Time)  

Martis, 2 die Martii; Anno 11° Georgii IV ti Regis, 1830.From: 'House of Commons Journal Volume 85: 2 March 1830', Journal of the House of Commons: volume 85: 1830, pp. 118-124.  
Petitions against Renewal of East India Charter.
A Petition of Ironmasters, proprietors of the principal ironworks in Shropshire;-and, of Land-owners, Clergy, Merchants, Manufacturers and other Inhabitants of Keighley, in the west riding of the county of York,-were presented, and read; praying, That the House will be pleased to take into its most serious consideration the propriety of altogether removing the restrictions which, by virtue of the Charter of the East India Company, are operating to the injury of the general trade of the country. From: 'House of Commons Journal Volume 85: 2 March 1830', Journal of the House of Commons: volume 85: 1830, pp. 118-124. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=16186&strquery=mill keighley 


Weaving
maggieblanck.com What life was like before and during the industrial revolution.

Child Mill Workers
In Frazer's Magazine at this period attention was called to the evidence of Mr. Gilbert Sharpe, the overseer of Keighley, Yorkshire, who was examined by the Factory Commission. He was asked whether he had any reason to think that any children lost their lives in consequence of excessive work in the mills. He said he had no doubt of it, and he gave this instance. 
" Four or five months back, there was a girl of a poor man's that I was called to visit ; she was poorly—she had attended a mill, and I was obliged to relieve the father in the course of my office, in consequence of the bad health of the child ; by and by she went back to her work again, and one day he came to me with tears in his eyes. I said, 'What is the matter, Thomas ? ' He said, ' My little girl is dead.' I said, 'When did she die?' He said, 'In the night; and what breaks my heart is this: 
she went to the mill in the morning ; she was not able to do work, and a little boy said he would assist her if she would give him a halfpenny on Saturday ; I said I would give him a penny." But at night, when the child went home, perhaps about a quarter of a mile, in going home she fell down several times on the road through exhaustion, till at length she reached her father's door with difficulty. 

Verse-writers with more or less skill put these facts into song. 
" All night with tortured feeling, He watch'd his speechless child ; While close beside her kneeling, She knew him not—nor smil'd. Again the factory's ringing, Her last perception's tried ; When, from her straw-bed springing, ' "Tis time  ' she shriek'd and died  That night a chariot pass'd her While on the ground she lay ; The daughters of her master An evening visit pay ; Their tender hearts were sighing, As negro wrongs were told, While the white slave was dying, Who gain'd their father's gold." 
This is true of another factory child, who just before died of consumption, induced by protracted factory labour. With the last breath upon her lips, she cried out, " Father, is it time ? " and so died. 

Types of Fabric Taken from Textile Manufacture and Other Industries in Keighley by John Hodgson

SHALLOONS: Full twilled stuffs that are twilled on both sides, made of single weft and warp, woven with four treadles in a variety of qualities, some having five score hanks of weft in a piece, others eight or nine score and ranging in width from 32 to 36 inches and 29 yards long. Made from Lincolnshire and Yorkshire wool. This class of goods formed the material for female dresses. A great number were dyed red and sent to Turkey. Keighley was regularly sending pieces of shalloon to London before 1725
SAYS: A stout shalloon twilled the same, and woven with a four heald twill, but the warp and weft for says were heavier to make stouter stuff, and they were also usually fabricated from wool of a superior quality and made 42 inches wide and 42 yards long. They were largely exported to Spain, Portugal and the Italian States, to make priests attire. 
RUSSELS: A kind of lasting manufactured of double warp and single weft and with a five heald twill, like the calamanco which it resembled in all respects except being stouter and having double warp. They were woven in many qualities varying from 180 to 400 hanks of weft in a piece, 27 inches wide and 28 yards long and on being finished were sometimes glaze. They were used for ladies petticoats, boots, shoes and men's waistcoats.
Lastings or EVERLASTINGS: A stout fabric only 18 inches wide with double warp, sometimes of three threads and single weft, made with a five heald twill, of Nottinghamshire and best Lincolnshire wool. There were three different sorts of lastings, as prunelles wrought with three healds, also serge-de-Berry, a variety heavier, and woven with seven healds.
DRAWBOYS: Figured stuffs woven in a loom of a peculiar construction, and at first required the aid of a boy to draw a string to work the figure; this circumstance appears to have given these goods the name of drawboys. More recently the weaver has been able to dispense with the services of the boy, by touching a spring which enables him to work the figure and change the pattern. This class of goods was always sold at Halifax market. In weaving these goods goods the weaver had to sour his weft in a sud made from warm water and soap, when sometimes a quantity of suds would be left over, which could be warmed up and utilized for a future scouring. Robinson Greenwood of Thwaites was the last person in this parish to make this class of goods.
AMENS: A figured stuff made with double warp; William Sharp of Intake was making this class of goods in 1793.
CALLAMANCAS: Plain and striped stout stuffs, 17 inches wide and 29 yards long; made with single warps and glazed finishing, chiefly employed for making ladies petticoats and chair seating. 
TAMMIES: A plain piece from 18 to 36 inch wide made from deep stapled Lincolnshire and Yorkshire wool, and manufactured in great variety from 48 to 80 threads of weft, and 48 to 60 threads of warp to an inch. They were a fine class of goods and often glazed in finishing. Often sent abroad they were also used here for ladies dresses. Tammies were later made of both warp and weft of botany wool.
WILDBORES: A tammy made much stouter and closer woven, but not glazed and of a lower class of wool.
CAMLETS: Made both in plain and twilled, width 18 to 27 inches, length 29 yards, some woven with single warp and weft, others with double warp, and sometimes with double weft also, and of thicker yarn. Woven in gray state and afterwards dyed various colours, and hot pressed. Largely exported to the East Indies and China, those for the home market were mostly used for making cloaks.
MOREENS: Made of stout heavy materials, watered and embossed, chiefly used for bed curtains and furniture, width 28 inches and 24 yards long. 
BOMBAZINES: Made with silk  warps and worsted weft, spun from fine Norfolk and Kent wool, the worsted being thrown upon the face or right side. There were two widths, 18 or 19 inches and 40 to 50 inches, both usually being 60 yards long.

PROCESSES
Acquire wool
This would be by either shearing their own sheep, or buying from some local "putting out" merchant. Low production, or families weaving for themselves would gather wool snagged on bushes.
Those that "put out" would often combine this with some other business and the wool brought by either pack horse or waggon.
The raw materials were often provided by the merchant, who then received the finished product, the advantages of this was that workers  could work at their own speed  at home  and look after the children, or indeed get the children involved. While we can see that this system had many benefits  the homes were polluted by the raw materials.
Carding
A wooden block with a handle and metal spikes set in leather. The fibre would be combed to untangle and straighten it into lengths suitable for spinning. This was usually a Childs job.
Spinning
The fibres are drawn (pulled) and, at the same time, twisted together. This tightens them together to form the yarn. Usually done by women who were often unmarried (hence the term spinster).
Weaving
The yarn was then woven into a fabric.
Fulling and Walking
Involves the cleansing of cloth (particularly wool) to eliminate oils, dirt, and other impurities, and making it thicker.
Two processes, scouring and milling (thickening). Originally fulling was carried out by literally pounding the cloth with the fuller's feet (hence the description of them as 'walkers'), or hands, or a club. From the medieval period, however, it often was carried out in a water mill, known as a fulling mill, a walk mill, or a tuck mill.. 
Scouring
First done by soaking and trampling the fabric in urine. Urine was known as 'wash', was a source of ammonium salts and assisted in cleansing and whitening the cloth. By the medieval period fuller's earth had been introduced for use in the process. This seems to have been used in conjunction with 'wash'. More recently, soap was been used.
Thickening
The second function of fulling was to thicken cloth by matting the fibers together to give it strength and increase waterproofing (felting). This was important in the case of woollens,  but not for worsted materials made from long staple wool. Then after water was used to rinse out the foul smell  used during cleansing.


Other Industries


Speak's Work Wear

Reids Bookshop
Closed 13th January 2011 after 112 years
Taken from the Keighley News: Keighley historian, Ian Dewhirst, said Reids dates back to 1899 when a Wilsden man called Luther Smith began a book and stationery business at 10 Cavendish Street. He said that the bookshop’s name dates from 1927 when it was bought by JW Reid & Co. The store moved to its latest and last premises at 87 Cavendish Street in 1995.


Keighley Gas Works

Happy days of good horses and good pals From: Frank H Yardley, Queens Road, Ingrow, Keighley. A mans story of working with horses in Keighley.

George Green (Foundry Engineers) Ltd

Shoemakers, Bootmakers,

Cobblers and related occupations 1851

Keighley National Shell Factory in Dalton Lane 

Life maggieblanck.com An over view of life and trades.

Keighley's coal mining industry.
Mines were worked in the area for at least five centuries with the last one closing in 1932. There is a book called Keighley Coal Written by Mike Gill   
Stanbury Coal and Lead Mine
For centuries coal had been mined on the Morton side of the River Aire. Seventeenth century records describe the mining of coal on the East Riddlesden estate by the Murgatroyds and, as late as the nineteen twenties the Brigg family were mining at Morton Banks. The Starkies took little interest in their Keighley property and Leach may also have obtained the lease to the East Riddlesden coal mines which his family had later.

WIMSOL Bleach Factory, Pitt Street
Yorkshire Film Archives


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Taken from yorkshirepost.co.uk

Happy days of good horses and good pals
From: Frank H Yardley, Queens Road, Ingrow, Keighley.

Regarding your memories of working with horses, when I was 12 years old, I went to a farm in Osbaldwick, a village near York, where all the Irish cattle were taken when they came off the cattle trains from Ireland.
They stayed three days and then were taken to York market on Thursdays. As there was not enough grass, the cattle were given hay every day. I would drive the horse and wagon up and down the field, the farmer cut the trusses of hay and dropped it off in heaps for the cattle. When they were going to market, between eight and nine o'clock, it was like a cattle drive, as two or three hundred were driven.
At York market every two weeks there would be a sale of heavy horses. I would go after school and see them sold till six o'clock at night, sometimes I missed school to be there all day. When I left school in 1939, I got a job driving a van horse for a firm delivering goods in York. The hours were 50 hours a week for 10 shillings, and fourpence off for your insurance stamp.
I did this job till I was 16, then my family moved to Haworth, near Keighley, where I got a job with Frank Bailey and Son, Ebor Farm, Haworth, carting coal to the woollen mills.
I started at 6am and finished at 6pm, 6am to noon on Saturdays, with one weekend off in three. First the cows were milked, then feed and groom your horse, have your breakfast ready to turnout at eight o'clock to cart coal until five o'clock with one hour for dinner. Feed and brush the horse and bed it up for the night. Then milk the cows, it was now six o'clock and time for home.
We worked 59 hours a week for £4. I started there in 1941, I was married in 1948 and the wage was still £4. It was a bad time for working horses, corn was short, but there was always plenty of good hay. Many a time on winter mornings we had to turn out with three horses and the snow-plough and clear the roads from the railway yard to the mills, before we could start carting.
It was very hard for the horses at haytime, they would finish carting at five o'clock then be in the mowing machines till nine o'clock from seven o'clock. We always hoped it was possible to do most of the haymaking while the mills were closed for holidays. Once fodder was so short we ploughed up the top of the tip, at the back of one of the mills and grew a crop of oats which came in very useful for the horses. I liked the farming side as it was overtime at two shillings an hour.
Then came a big shock, the horses were to be sold and motor wagons bought. I had no interest in motors so I left. I went freelance for a year then Foster and Manning, carting agents in Keighley, asked me to work for them at £7 a week. They had good horses and good tackle.
They had three horses and lovely harnesses, we would turn them up for May Day. They knew their Jack, Duke and Captain names and knew their drivers. Saturday mornings were spent in the harness room to clean all the harnesses and polish all the brasses. They looked really well. At 10.30 Billy Foster would bring us each a bacon sandwich and make a pot of tea and we sat round a pot-bellied stove.
Then it happened again, motor wagons were bought. We have to move with the times, so I learned to drive. I drove the last heavy horse in Keighley and took the last load of coal to Firth's Mill. When you work with a good horse you have a good pal. Happy times.